Radars 1970.

Kraków 2013-11-05

The NUR radar series.

NUR-31 / N-31 (Justyna-82).

In 1975, PIT started designing a new generation of two-coordinate coherent radars with pulse compression, codenamed NUR. NUR stands for Ground Based Radar Device. The training of future service technicians began in the mid-80s at the Higher School of Radio Engineering in Jelenia Góra. The radar was used by the Polish Army in 1988. A characteristic feature of this generation of radars are fully-coherent transmitting and receiving systems. The idea of ​​these radars has not changed, but the technique has changed. Integrated circuits (semiconductor) have been widely used. Except for four microwave tubes in the transmitting path and two image tubes in the indicators, the rest were integrated circuits.

The NUR-31 (aka N-31 or Justyna-82) is the first of the radar family. The transmitter block consists, as in all NUR class stations, of BSW-block of excitation signals and blocks of tube amplifiers, based on traveling wave tubes (LFB) and amplitrons. This configuration of the transmitter allows to obtain a signal at the output of the transmitter with a pulse power of at least 260 kW. Consequently, of course, it gives a greater range of object detection. The air situation is illustrated on the screen of the panoramic-synthetic indicator, which can simultaneously display the so-called synthetic vision, i.e. conventional signs facilitating the identification of individual targets, their descriptions, a clock, etc. tracked routes.

The radar fits on one Tatra-815 car with a small two-wheeled trailer, on which there is a power unit. Prototype examples were mounted on the Tatra-148 car. The placement of the radar in practically one car resulted in a significant increase in mobility. The radar usually uses an antenna installed on the roof of the car, but a stationary antenna attachment has also been developed with a larger antenna to improve the radar range to which the NUR-31 can be connected.

The transmitter uses an excitation signal block (BSW) producing complex pulses with linear frequency modulation and two gain stages on the LFB and amlitron amplifiers in the high power end stages. BSW also produces continuous signals for the frequency conversion process in the receiver. The echo pulses are compressed in the receiving path, which improves distance discrimination. The station has the ability to operate on a different carrier frequency in each successive pulse. The basic type of work is "diversity", i.e. working on two alternately used frequencies. The Jawor-M2 radar needed two channels to work in this way. Another type of work is to change the frequency randomly - from pulse to pulse. Of course, it is also possible to operate on one frequency. NUR-31 has extensive anti-interference systems to combat passive and active interference. The station is two-coordinate, for foreign objects, and for one's own, thanks to the transponder, three-coordinate. To be fully three-coordinate, it can automatically cooperate with the N-41 radar altimeter. Another feature of the station is the possibility of remote operation from an external station. The time of unfolding and rolling up is 15-25 minutes. The antenna has a semi-automatic leveling system. The radar crew consists of five soldiers. The power supply is a PAD-36 power generator, which provides 3x380 V three-phase alternating current. Power consumption up to 21 kW. The station easily detects objects moving at speeds up to 3 Ma. Tracks up to 32 targets simultaneously.

Basic data of the NUR-31 radar; Operation in L band, new designation D band. Frequency range 1-2 GHz. Wavelength 30-15 cm. The range at the car antenna is 160 km, and with a larger antenna on the attachment 200 km. Beam width in azimuth 1.9 degrees. Has the ability; working at several frequencies, tuning from pulse to pulse, pulse compression, stabilization of the false alarm level. Discrimination: at a distance of 150 m; in azimuth - 3 degrees. Antenna dimensions 9 m x 2.50 m. Antenna rotation speed 6 rpm. Beam width: in azimuth 1.85 degrees; in the elevation 30 degrees. Anti-interference systems. The set consists of one Tatra 815 car and a trailer with a power generator. It can work with the NUR-41 (RW-32) radio altimeter. The radar crew consists of 3-5 soldiers.

NUR-41 (RW-32) Bożena.

The NUR-41 (RW-32) has been developed, built and produced in Poland since 1992. NUR-41 (RW-32) radio altimeter designed to work with two-coordinate radars (2D). The complex is then a 3D radar. It is a mobile station, mounted on the chassis of the Czech (Czechoslovak) Tatra-815 car. The radar includes a device of the IFF "Supraśl" system, operating on the basis of a secondary radar, allowing for the identification of detected airborne objects.

Basic data of the radio altimeter NUR-41 Bożena; Range 200-360 km. Range up to 25,000 - 30,000 m. Station power 400-600 kW. It works in the L band, new marking C and D. The width of the emitted electromagnetic pulses is 9-10 μs. Antenna with parabolic reflector. The dimensions of the antenna are 10 m x 2.2 m. The antenna performs a reciprocating movement with a frequency of 1-15 movements / minute, adjustable in steps, in the range from -2 degrees to 32 degrees (elevation). 3.2 degree azimuth beamwidth. Beam width in the elevation 0.8 degrees. Azimuth discrimination of 3.6 degrees. The elevation angle of 0.9 degrees distinguishable. Distinctions at a distance of 200 m. Accuracy at a height of 300 m. Accuracy at a distance of 200 m. The generator set supplies the power supply 3 x 220/380 50 Hz. Power consumption of the station 32 kW. Equipment car: 9.90 m long, 2.60 m wide, 3 76 m high. Weight 24,500 kg. Trailer: length 8.10 m, width 2.70 m, height 3.30 m. Weight 4 500 kg. SZ-1MR power station: length 7.50 m, width 2.50 m, height 3.20 m, weight 17,000 kg. PAD-36 aggregate; weight 2,700 kg.

P-35 Monika.

P-35 Monika is a radar used to control the area of ​​a military airport. The radar is rooted in the RLS station; P-20, P-25, P-30. The P-30 Anna radar was used in Poland. The P-35 radar was developed by the CCCP, and in 1963, its license production was started in Poland at the Radwar company. About 100 units were built for the needs of the Polish Army. In the Polish Army, he was codenamed Monika.

Basic data of the P-35; the radar is equipped with two antennas, a transmitting set, a receiving set, an operator-controller station (usually in a special truck), an electric power supply system and cable connections. The radar has an effective range of 100 km. At this distance, it detects planes from an altitude of 1,800 m. Range over 320 km. Detection of objects in the distance range; 50, 100, 200, 400 km. Effective work ceiling up to 10,000 m. Max ceiling 30,000 m. The antenna rotates at a speed of 15 revolutions / minute as standard, but it can also rotate at a speed of 3 and 6 revolutions per minute. S band frequency range. Power 800 kW. Decimeter range. Two-coordinate. It did not have anti-interference systems. It has 6 channels. It has a self-recognition system based on the NRZ-11 device. Accuracy at 500 m. Accuracy in azimuth of 0.5 degrees. It distinguishes between objects separated by at least 500 m. Can work in the system; sector, circular or annular. These stations were installed virtually permanently on elevations in the airport landing area. Time of unfolding, folding up; Four hours.

P-35 Monika. 2012 year. Photo by Karol Placha Hetman
P-35 Monika. 2012 year. Photo by Karol Placha Hetman

Opracował Karol Placha Hetman