Iliuszyn Ił-28. 1948. - History
105b Section 1952-10-31
The history of the creation of Il-28. 1948.
In 1947, in the design offices (OKB) of Iljuszyn, Suchoja and Tupolev, work began on the design of a tactical (front) bomber with a turbojet, designed to operate on the front line and its close hinterland. The initial assumptions of the new aircraft placed great demands on the designers. The bomber should carry 1,000 kg of bombs, over a distance of 2,000 km, with a flight height of up to 11,000 m, its speed should be about 900 km / h, and the flight duration should be at least 2 hours at a cruising speed of 650-750 km / h.
Ilyushin had to solve many new problems, including the problem of small arms. In the first period of work on turbo-jet bombers, heated discussions took place over the armament of these machines. The installation of small arms decks had to increase the number of crew, increase the weight of the aircraft, deterioration of aerodynamic properties and, as a consequence, performance.
On the other hand, it was difficult to count only on the advantage of aircraft speed, the more so because the fighters were also getting faster speeds, and the radar sights allowed a potential enemy to open fire from a greater distance than it did in World War II. Ilyushin finally came to the conclusion that the bomber must be equipped with shooting positions to defend the rear half-zone and that to achieve this goal it is enough to have a tail turret, provided that it has a high rotation speed and a wide field of fire.
Ilyushin took advantage of the experience gained while designing the Il-22 bomber. Failures associated with this heavy bomber, encouraged the designer to intensify the effort and the work of his team progressed quickly. Reducing the crew to three people had a positive effect on reducing the weight of the structure. Another important issue was the division of the airframe into technological parts. This was not about reducing costs, but about increasing the accuracy of individual components. While accuracy for an aircraft flying at 500 km / h is not that important, for a 900 km / h machine it is very important. Ilyushin technologically divided the wings and horizontal tail along the chord, and the hull along the vertical plane of symmetry. The weight of the structure increased, but the quality of the elements made incomparably increased, and the labor intensity did not give way to the performance of a fighter aircraft.
On January 12, 1948, the design of the new aircraft was ready. In July 1948, the bomber plane program was officially included in the programming work of the Iljuszyn design office. Until now, the designer has carried out all work on the bomber on his own initiative.
On August 7, 1948, the crew included; pilot - W. K. Kokkinaki, radio operator - B. A. Jerofjejew, navigator - N. D. Sorokin, took off on the prototype bearing the designation Il-28. The plane was stable in horizontal flight, showed no tendency to fall into a corkscrew. Also, when flying with one engine running, the aircraft did not tend to get into a spin. Ascending bomber characteristics were also good. Landing by plane did not pose any difficulties for the pilot.
One of the weaknesses of the prototype was the rapid wear of tires when landing at a concrete airport. The tires had to be replaced after about ten landings. The situation was improved by the subsequent use of nylon covered tires.
The first copy and two subsequent prototypes flew with two British Nene engines, with a static thrust of 2 x 22.26 kN (2 x 2 270 kG). The thrust of the power unit was small in relation to the weight of the aircraft. But even with these engines, the bomber showed good performance. The aircraft developed a speed of 800 km / h, with a load of 1,000 kg bombs at an altitude of 11,000 m, and the maximum speed was 833 km / h, at an altitude of 5,000 m (Ma = 0.79).
A major disadvantage of Nene engines was the large diameter and relatively low thrust. This weak point of the drive had to be eliminated first. On December 30, 1948, the IL-28 prototype was flown with Soviet RD-45 F turbojet engines, a modified version of Nene. However, on August 8, 1949, the bomber rose to the first flight with WK-1 engines, which are the development version of the RD-45 F and later installed in serial copies. New engines were placed in slightly changed covers with a new profile, favorable in terms of aerodynamics. The covers were narrowed at the junction with the wings.
Other changes were also made to the aircraft. A new version of the glazing of the navigator-bombardier and pilot station was used, and the radar station was moved from under the tail portion of the fuselage in front of the bomb chamber. All changes were then introduced on serial aircraft.
The bomber made state tests between February and April 1949. Still with RD-45 engines. Good opinion about its piloting, as well as the simplicity of ground handling, determined the acceptance of the aircraft for serial production. At the same time, work on competing planes: Sukhoi (Su-10) and Tupolev Tu-14 (Tu-78) was suspended. In May 1949, a conference was held at the Kremlin at Stalin's. At the meeting, decisions were made to start serial production of Il-28 aircraft and to build a short Tu-14 series for maritime aviation. The reason for returning to the Tu-14 aircraft design was the greater range and longer bomb chamber housing the torpedoes without difficulty.
Production of Ił-28 bombers.
At the end of 1949, the IL-28 bomber underwent final tests with WK-1 engines developed by W. Klimow and field tests. In the same year a decision was made to start mass production of the Ilyushin bomber at three large aviation plants. Factories in Moscow, Voronezh and Omsk were selected. In the spring of 1950, the first serial copies became part of the bomb regiments, and during the May 1 parade in 1950, 25 IL-28 bombers flew over Red Square.
The Il-28 bomber was the last combat aircraft of Ilyushin, which was qualified for serial production.
The Il-28 series production lasted until 1956. A total of 6 317 IL-28 aircraft were built, of various versions, including: 4 406 bombers, 1 405 school bombers, 506 reconnaissance aircraft. At the peak of production, in the years 1953–1954, 150 planes were produced per month, which means that 4-5 regiments could be equipped with these planes per month!
Il-28 aircraft were armed; East Germany (German Democratic Republic), Czechoslovakia (where license production was undertaken), Hungary, Poland, Bulgaria, China (PRC, where license production was undertaken), Albania (machines from CCCP and China), Algeria, Egypt (machines from Czechoslovakia), Iraq , Morocco, Nigeria, Somalia, Yemen, Afghanistan, Indonesia, Cambodia, the KRL-D (Ludowa Korea) and Vietnam.
Written by Karol Placha Hetman