History of steam locomotives in the 19th century.
Part 02. 2022 year.
Further work on steam locomotives.
Engineers in England, Continental Europe and the USA were looking for the most successful design solutions for steam locomotives.
In 1827, Timothy Hackworth directed the exhaust steam outlet into the chimney for the first time, through a nozzle to improve the draft of the furnace.
Timothy Hackworth (1786-1850) was an English steam locomotive engineer and was the first locomotive inspector on the Stockton and Darlington Railway. Timothy Hackworth was a colleague of George Stephenson. They were born not in the same town. Tomy and his father were both a blacksmith and a boiler-maker.
In 1827, thanks to the persistence of Timothy Hackworth, his team completed the locomotive, which was named The Royal George. It was a 0-3-0 axis locomotive, ie C. The main invention in this locomotive was the introduction of a waste steam pipe in the form of a nozzle in the chimney. The device was called a blasting tube. From 1830, the blast tube was used by the Stephensonians to modify all locomotives built to date and in all subsequent new types of steam locomotives.
The Royal George steam locomotive had an interesting large boiler. The hearth and chimney were at one end of the boiler. Some fire pipes led the flue gas to the other end of the boiler, and the other in the opposite direction to the smoke box and chimney. In the front of the locomotive there is a steam collector on the boiler, and next to it two steam engines placed vertically. Connecting rods and trusses drove three axles. The system of three driving axles was forced by the desire to increase the traction of the locomotive to the rails in larger uphills and descents. The locomotive had great potential, but due to large blow-bys in the boiler, it was not successful. But technically it was a big advance.
In 1829, Marc Seguin in France developed a flame-tube boiler. This boiler allowed to increase the power and speed of steam locomotives from about 6 km / h to over 25 km / h, which resulted in faster development of the railway. This boiler has many pipes instead of a single pipe that runs from the firebox to the smoke box. This arrangement greatly improved the heat transfer from the exhaust gas to the water. As a result, the first utility steam locomotive in France, the designer and engineer Marc Seguin, was created.
Marc Seguin (1786-1875) was a French engineer. He went down in history as an inventor and entrepreneur. He created the first suspension bridge in continental Europe. He collaborated with George Stephenson. He was also the author of many books on the use of physics and mathematics in the construction of bridges and steam locomotives.
Steam locomotives The Planet and The Patentee.
In 1830, another Stephenson steam engine of the Planet type appeared, with cylinders placed horizontally at the front under the boiler, driving a cranked drive axle transferred to the rear of the locomotive (axle system 1A). It was the first steam locomotive built in greater numbers.
In 1834, Stephenson built a steam locomotive with a 1'A1 'axle configuration. The steam locomotive was named Patentee. This arrangement of the axles of the locomotive appeared in Europe for the next 20 years. Two motors were placed under the boiler and driven the wheels through the cranked axle of the driving wheels.
In addition, horizontal steam engines have become the standard in steam locomotives. Compared to vertical or tilt motors, the steam exchange in the horizontal motor was more efficient.
However, the crank for the drive axle has been used extremely rarely since 1840. The problem was that during each longer stop the mechanic's assistant had to refill the lubricating oil in the bushings. It was dangerous to walk under the steam locomotive. Therefore, all wheel drive systems have been moved to the outside. This facilitated the lubrication which was done much faster.
The first steam locomotives in Poland.
When the construction of the Mysłowice-Kraków railway line began in Małopolska, Kraków enjoyed the status of a free city. The connection between Mysłowice and Kraków was launched on October 13, 1847. On that day, the first train, pulled by a steam locomotive named "Kraków", left the Kraków railway station on the route to Mysłowice. Designation of the locomotive KrOs V-VIII. The first steam locomotives for the railways in Małopolska were bought in England from Georg Stephenson's factory. The "Kraków" steam locomotive was in the 1'B axle configuration. Wheels, engines, connecting rods and trusses were placed outside the refuge. The timing system, on the other hand, was placed under the boiler chimney and was driven from the drive axle. The steam locomotive had a cauldron with a large pot which was a water tank. There was a steam collector halfway along the length of the boiler. The smoke box was equipped with a high chimney. The driver was standing on a barred pier. The locomotive had a two-axle tender with a supply of water and coal. The steam engines were placed at a slight angle to the horizontal. The heating area of the boiler was 81.5 m2, and the pressure was 5 at. The subsequent steam locomotives had slightly larger boilers; 91 m2. The first steam locomotive was named "Kraków". Four KrOs V-VIII steam locomotives were purchased. Two in 1847 and two in 1849.
Two types of locomotives were purchased for the Kraków - Mysłowice route. The first type of KrOS V-VIII, described above. The second type of locomotive was hasty. 1'A1 'axle system, plus two-axle tender. In 1847, 4 locomotives were purchased. The locomotives were marked as KrOs I-IV. The heating area of the boiler was 57.0 m2, and the pressure was 5 at. This steam locomotive had an outer sanctuary, which arched over the wheels. Two twin engines were placed horizontally under the boiler chimney and drove the cranked drive axle. There were also eccentrics on the axis that controlled the Stephenson-type stunts.
More changes to the locomotives.
The next steam locomotive factories were built in England, France, Belgium, Austria and Prussia.
For many years, views on the type of refuge construction clashed. Steam locomotives with external and internal refuges were designed almost simultaneously. The former were used back in the 1880s. Then there were only internal refuges.
In 1850, the work station of the steam locomotive team began to be enclosed. Half boxes with a roof, a front wall with windows, called "glasses", and side walls with windows have become a standard. There was no door and no back wall.
A great achievement was the development of an effective anti-skid system through the use of a sander. The sandbox was placed on top of the boiler. Thanks to this, the sand poured into it was constantly dry and did not clump due to moisture. There are pipes leading from the sandbox, the ends of which are above the rail just in front of the driving wheel. A damper is mounted on the tube, which is actuated by a string from the driver's cabin.
Johann Friedrich August Borsig.
n 1837, Johann Friedrich August Borsig (1804 - 1854), a German manufacturer in Berlin, established a factory for steam engines. In 1839, the first Berlin steam locomotive was built there. The steam locomotive had a 2'A1 'axle system. The factory in Berlin found many customers for its steam locomotives. It turned out that Prussian steam locomotives are less emergency than those from England. Therefore, steam locomotives in Berlin were also bought for the Warsaw-Vienna railway.
Borsig was a supporter of the railway from the very beginning. Despite his lack of experience with railways in Prussia and the risks involved in setting up a railway machine manufacturing company, Borsig used his savings to purchase a plot of land on Chausseestraße (in Feuerland) near Oranienburger Tor, and set up his own machinery factory, focusing on locomotives. The date of establishing the factory was July 22, 1837, i.e. the day of the first successful casting in the foundry.
Despite the enormous costs, the first locomotive with the serial number 1 and the name BORSIG was completed in 1840. The locomotive received a 2'A1 'axle system. This locomotive had an internal frame, a two-axle front swivel bogie and an additional rolling axle behind the only driving axle. In general, the Borsing locomotive resembled those of Georg Stephenson "Kraków".
On July 21, 1840, the Borsig locomotive entered the competition with a locomotive built by Stephenson on the Berlin-Jüterbog railway line. The Borsig locomotive won by 10 minutes, proving that despite the lack of experience, the Prussians were able to build locomotives at least as good as the British models, so the import of locomotives was no longer needed. Following this victory, the number of orders increased rapidly. Another six machines of this type were sold in 1842 to the companies Berlin - Stettiner Eisenbahn and Oberschlesische Eisenbahn.
By 1843, the Borsing plant had built 18 steam locomotives. In 1844, another 24 copies. In 1846, the 100th locomotive was built. In 1854, Borsing had nearly 100% of the locomotive market in Germany. From 1851, Borsig locomotives were also ordered by foreign railway companies, including the Warsaw-Vienna Railway and Seeländische Eisenbahn.
The Warsaw-Vienna Railways company has ordered Borsing passenger-freight locomotives in the 1'A1 'axle system with a 3-axle tender. The diameter of the driving wheels was 1.80 m and the rolling wheels 1.00 m. Tender had wheels 0.9 m in diameter. The mainstay of the locomotive was outside and inside. There was a used steam-heated feed water tank on the boiler. Next to it was a large steam trap, and in front of it a sandbox that poured sand under the drive wheels. The chimney was high and relatively narrow. The door to the smoke box opened to the left. The engines were outside the refuge, but the timing was placed under the smoke box. The locomotive had a half-booth, a steam bell and a crew of two.
Continued in the next section.
Written by Karol Placha Hetman