320a Section 15.11.2012 year.
Boeing-787 Dreamliner in Poland.
The Boeing B.787 is a commercial aircraft adapted to transport approximately 300 passengers over long distances. The B.787 is the first aircraft in the world to be built primarily from composites.
The Boeing 787 is a wide-body, medium-sized, long-range airliner. It was designed in a classic layout with two drive motors. Despite this, it is aerodynamically ahead of previous aircraft designs.
Constructed of composites. The plane is 80% by volume made of composite. Whereas by weight; 50% composites, 20% aluminum, 15% titanium, 10% steel and 5% others. Aluminum is mainly used in the wings and tail parts. Titanium in engines. Most of the airframe fasteners are made of titanium and steel.
The plane has a new philosophy of internal systems. It was based on electrical systems (even wheel braking, engine starting and airframe de-icing). Hydraulic and pneumatic systems have been minimized or even eliminated.
The plane consumes at least 20% less fuel than the classic layout, which allows for long distances. For the B 787-9 version, it is even 16,300 km (including all passengers, of course).
The wings are made of composite (80%) and aluminum (20%). The angle of attack of the wings is 32.2 degrees. Area of ?? 325 square meters. Span 60.00 m. The wings have a much greater lift than the planes developed so far. One of the advantages of this solution is the remoteness of the tips of the airfoils from the ground, which reduces the possibility of damage, e.g. when approaching in strong winds.
As standard, the airfoil is equipped with; ailerons, wing flaps (2-segment), leading edge flaps (slots, 5-segment), interrupters (spoilers, 6-segment). At the ends of the airfoils, there are no currently so popular elements known as winglets. The wing tips are designed to also generate lift, but without creating eddy currents.
The shape of the wing is very studied. Based on multi-faceted arcs. In the past, such wing aerodynamics would have been unacceptable due to the air glide along the airfoil. But currently (2005) such computer-designed aerodynamics uses these properties. The wing offers less resistance while maintaining high lift. The removal of ice from the leading edge of the wings and tail is achieved by electric heating mats.
The fuselage of the aircraft was technologically made of three elements. Anterior, middle, caudal. The front element contains the crew cabin (cockpit) and part of the passenger cabin. The center section is one piece similar to a cylinder, but the cross section is not perfectly circular. The tail part is similar in shape to a truncated cone. In the upper part, there are knots for attaching the vertical tail. The fuselage ends with the horizontal tail together with the tip cone in which the APU is placed.
Hull Dimensions - Width: 18 ft 11 in (5.77 m) / Height: 19 ft 7 in (5.97 m). Maximum cabin width 18 feet (5.49 m). The interior width of the cabin at its widest point is approximately 18 feet (550 cm). The hull is 1 inch (2.5 cm) larger than originally planned. This result is 15 inches (38 cm) better than the A 330 and A 340. However, it is 5 inches (13 cm) smaller than the A 350 and 16 inches (41 cm) smaller than the B 777.
Lower deck load capacity; 4,822 cu ft (137 m3), 28 × LD3, or 9x (88x125) Pallets, or 8x (96x125) Pallets + 2x LD3.
The glass cockpit was developed by Honeywell International. The cockpit is equipped with multifunctional LCD monitors (displays) with a large diagonal. These are the monitors that will be standard industry use. Interestingly, there are 4 monitors on the main board, not 5 as in other planes. There is no center monitor on the B 787. Only the emergency artificial horizon is placed in the center. The fifth monitor, on the other hand, was placed on a horizontal panel between the pilots. This monitor is mainly used for mission planning.
The aircraft was equipped with a translucent display (HUD), which is already common in civil aviation. The head-up indicator also shows the view from the thermal imaging camera. This allows pilots to see through clouds and fog. This system is already used on Lockheed Martin Orion aircraft.
For the B 787, Honeywell and Rockwell Collins developed a flight control system, guidance system, dual HUD and other avionics systems. Power Conversion has developed the electrical installation.
The shape of the cockpit glazing is not futuristic, but it is definitely very modern. The panes in the windows are not flat, but they fit exactly the shape of the hull. Which significantly improves the aerodynamic flow of the aircraft. Besides, there are only 4 windows. Most passenger planes have 6 windows in the cockpit. The glazing area is very large, which ensures excellent visibility. The windows in the B 787 do not open, therefore an emergency exit in the form of a hatch, similar to military airplanes, is placed above the seat of the co-pilot. It is through this hatch that pilots display flags, visible in many photos.
The B 787-8 is normally intended for; 234 passengers in a three-class arrangement, 240 passengers in a two-class arrangement, 296 passengers in a one-class arrangement and maximum density. In higher grades, the arrangement of the seats may be 1-2-1, 2-2-2. The distance between the seats (rooms) can be 46 to 61 inches (120 to 150 cm). In business class, the spacing can be 36 to 39 inches (91 to 99 cm). In the economy class, there may be 3-2-3, 2-4-2, 3-3-3 systems. Seat spacing is 32 to 34 inches (81 to 86 cm). The possibilities of the cabin configuration are very large.
LOT Polish Airlines chose a three-class layout; premium 18-seater (with fully reclining seats), premium economy 21-seats (reclining), economy class with 213 seats. Total 252 places.
Fully equipped kitchens were installed on board. There are several toilets on board. Toilets for people with disabilities may also be installed in airplanes. At the rear and in the front of the fuselage there are compartments for rest and sleep for the crew.
The passenger compartment windows have the largest surface area of any commercial aircraft. They have dimensions of 10.7 x 18.4 inches (27 x 47 cm). This makes the views through the windows nicer. The windows have no shutters. Instead, photo-electronic dimming was used by pressing a button. Quite simply, the panes are made of an electro-chromium material that becomes opaque when exposed to an electrical impulse.
The cabin lighting allows for smooth adjustment of both the strength and the color of the light. The lighting is based on LED lamps consisting of three diodes. Thanks to this, it is possible to select the glow in the cabin so that it simulates the time of day and night. It brightens when serving meals and weakens to maintain rest time. This is important for intercontinental flights, where when changing time zones it is difficult for passengers to get used to a night lasting only 4 hours. If we add a more spacious cabin, it turns out that all these changes simply mean that the Dreamliner is much, much more comfortable.
The internal pressure of the B 787's cabin increases the same as on any commercial aircraft. But in the B 787 these values are greater. At the cruising altitude, a pressure of 1,800 m is maintained instead of 2,400 m. In addition, a higher air humidity is maintained in the cabin. It may be 15% compared to 4% in previous designs. As a result, most passengers will not experience dry eyes and mucous membranes. Air humidity is set by the crew depending on the number of passengers. The air conditioning is powered by an electric motor, not a traditional drive motor. This eliminates the need to cool the air, which is much warmer from the propulsion engine. Air conditioning has HEPA filters, active filters (eliminating irritating and harmful odors). Ozone is also removed from the outside air.
The luxury of travel is also enhanced by an active blast (turbulence) mitigation system, similar to that used in the B-2 bombers.
The plane's impact in the layout and design does not differ from those used so far, but the technologies used make it light and effective.
The B 787-8 has a typical chassis layout with a 2x4x4 wheel arrangement. The main chassis is a typical 4-wheel bogie. Electrically operated brakes are modern.
Users can choose between two engine manufacturers: Rolls-Royce (Rolls-Royce Trent 1000 engine, 2 x 320 kN) or General Electric (General Electric GEnx engine, 2 x 280 kN). Importantly, the motors have unified hangers and all connectors. Therefore, it is possible to replace General Electric GEnx engines with Rolls-Royce Trent 1000 engine and vice versa at each service.
Data T-T Boeing B-787-8 i Boeing B-787-9:
|Rozpiętość||197 ft 0 in (60.0 m)||197 ft 0 in (60.0 m)||m|
|Długość||186 ft (56.7 m)||206 ft (62.8 m)||m|
|Wysokość||55 ft 6 in (16.9 m)||55 ft 6 in (16.9 m)||m|
|Masa własna||110 000||124 000||kg|
|Masa całkowita||200 000||230 000||kg|
|Masa maksymalna||215 910||244 940||kg|
|Paliwo||124 700 – 126 920||138 700||litry|
|Zasięg maksymalny||15 700||16 300||km|
|Pułap maksymalny||43 000||43 000||ft|
Maximum take-off weight; 228,000 kg. Maximum landing masses; 172,000 kg.
Cruising speed; Mach 0.85 (567 mph, 490 knots, 913 km / h at 35,000 ft / 10,700 m).
Maximum speed; Mach 0.89 (593 mph, 515 knots, 954 km / h at 35,000 ft / 10,700 m).
Range, Fully Loaded; 7,650–8,200 nm (14,200–15,200 km; 8,800–9,440 mi).
Take-off distance; 10,300 ft (3,100 m); High Thrust Rating: 8,300 ft (2,500 m).
Fuel; 33,528 US gal (126,920 liters).
Written by Karol Placha Hetman