Sikorsky-Mielec Black Hawk S-70i. 2019.

Kraków 2020-01-12

Sikorsky-Mielec Black Hawk S-70i.

328a Section 2019-12-20. Poland.


Black Hawk for Special Forces.

Black Hawk USAF. 2017. Photo by Karol Placha Hetman
Black Hawk USAF. 2017. Photo by Karol Placha Hetman

Black Hawk USAF. 2018. Photo by Karol Placha Hetman
Black Hawk USAF. 2018. Photo by Karol Placha Hetman

Black Hawk USAF. 2018. Photo by Karol Placha Hetman
Black Hawk USAF. 2018. Photo by Karol Placha Hetman


Sikorski claims that interest in the armed Black Hawk helicopter in the world is high. This is due to the escalation of the Islamic State's struggle. The countries concerned have Black Hawk helicopters on their armament, but the unarmed versions. PZL Mielec can count on greater participation in the development of armed Black Hawk, if Poland chooses this helicopter for the Polish Armed Forces. Polish armed Black Hawk would be tested at the training ground in Nowa Dęba, Poland.

At the beginning of July 2016, an armed Black Hawk from Mielec was presented at the Air Show in English Farnborough. Then helicopters took part in Anakonda 16 exercises in Poland.

On July 27, 2016, armed Black Hawk was officially presented. The president of PZL Mielec Janusz Zakręcki noted that Black Hawk in its armed version is a great opportunity for export for the Mielec company. In his opinion, both existing customers who already have Black Hawk helicopters and new users who will replace old machines with modern helicopters will be interested in such a product.

The Black Hawk avionics system recognizes itself what the machine has suspended from the hooks and helps the pilot to steer. Black Hawk is not afraid of dust or moisture, and this is important on military missions. This helicopter is like a chameleon and can be quickly prepared for a specific mission.

Polskie Zakłady Lotnicze Mielec produce S-70i Black Hawk helicopters. So far 39 machines and over 300 cabins of these helicopters have been built. The Mielec factory employs over 1,500 employees, and the Lockheed Martin Group employs 126,000 employees worldwide. PZL Mielec is the largest Lockheed Martin plant outside the United States.

Black Hawk S-70i for Special Forces.

At the end of 2016, several declarations were made by the government regarding the acquisition of new machines. Among others, the Ministry of National Defense declared the purchase of 10 Black Hawk helicopters from Mielec (2 units in 2016 and 8 units in 2017) for Special Forces. To increase the chance of finalizing the contract, the Minister of National Defense Antoni Macierewicz made all activities in this case confidential. Despite this, the proceedings conducted in "absolute confidentiality, for orders of fundamental importance for the security of the state", were blocked by Freemasonry.

In 2017, two proceedings were launched for the purchase of helicopters for the Navy and Special Forces. The problem is that the change in the position of the Minister of National Defense on January 9, 2018 did not serve to maintain the liquidity of proceedings.

In 2018, the Armament Inspectorate conducted procedures for the purchase of 8 machines for Special Forces and the same number of ZOP (anti-submarine) machines with the possibility of performing rescue missions in combat conditions for the Navy (CSAR). On January 18, 2017, the Minister of National Defense Antoni Macierewicz informed that the purchase of helicopters as part of an urgent operational need would include eight machines for Special Forces and eight for the Navy (16 in total). The forecasts that the contract (s) will be concluded in less than a year and the first machines will be in mid-2018 at the latest were unrealistic. Not because there was no will, but because business systems are still functioning.

At the beginning of March 2018, a correction was made at WTT. It was about making the delivery times for new helicopters more realistic, as well as the issues of inspections, servicing and repairs.

Special Forces is almost a Polish specialty. We have five special units. It is likely that the purchase of helicopters specifically for these formations is due to commitments made under specific arrangements in NATO. Black Hawk (consortium of Sikorsky and PZL Mielec), AW.101 (PZL Świdnik) and H225 Caracal (consortium of Airbus Helicopters and Heli Ivest) were proposed.

On January 25, 2019, Friday, a contract was signed for the supply of four Black Hawk helicopters for Special Forces. According to the assurances of the head of the Ministry of National Defense, Mariusz Blaszczak, this is the first party. The helicopters were manufactured at PZL Mielec, which has belonged to Americans since 2007, and has been owned by Lockheed Martin since 2015.

"The proceedings were conducted in negotiations with one contractor, in accordance with Decision No. 367 / MON of the Minister of National Defense of September 14, 2015 regarding the principles and procedure for awarding contracts of fundamental importance to national security at the Ministry of National Defense. This solution allows The Act of 29 January 2004 - Public Procurement Law "- informed the Ministry of Defense.

The agreement was signed by Minister of Defense Mariusz Błaszczak and president of PZL Mielec Janusz Zakręcki. The company PZL Mielec is responsible for the delivery of the machines. The helicopters will be delivered by December 2019. The contract value is PLN 683.4 million gross. The price includes a logistics package, comprehensive training of pilots and technical staff as well as retrofitting machines with specialized equipment for Special Forces. Special equipment for ordered helicopters is classified information.

Minister of National Defense Mariusz Błaszczak said - "This is an important day. The Polish Army bought Black Hawk, helicopters tested. ”He emphasized that this was a structure chosen by over 20 countries, also tested in combat conditions, among others in Iraq and Afghanistan.

Prime Minister Mateusz Morawiecki also took part in the contract signing ceremony. The Prime Minister emphasized that - "Through this type of shopping, Poland strengthens not only the NATO alliance and the security of the Polish sky, but also Polish industry. It is a combination of a development strategy and a strategy to ensure security. Let these "black hawks" Black Hawk guard the Polish sky."

Without a doubt, the weakest part of the contract is the number of machines ordered. In 2017, the United Right Government talked about buying 8 machines.

The first four Black Hawk International multi-purpose helicopters are to hit the 7th Special Action Squadron stationed at the 33rd Transport Aviation Base in Powidz. The 7th Special Action Squadron was formed in 2010. 7. EDS helicopters are used to conduct air operations for Special Forces such as landing troops, air reconnaissance and fire support. Currently, it is equipped with transport Mi-17 and Mi-17-1W.

Delivery of the first four Black Hawk S-70i helicopters for the Polish Army. 2019.

On December 20, 2019, the handover ceremony of four armed helicopters for Special Forces took place at the 1st Transport Aviation Base at Okęcie Airport in Warsaw. The ceremony was attended by Polish President Andrzej Duda, US Ambassador Georgette Mosbacher, Minister of National Defense Mariusz Błaszczak, President of PZL Mielec Janusz Zakręcki.

President Andrzej Duda emphasized, "Black Hawk helicopters are well known and tested to us. He added that our soldiers "repeatedly had the opportunity in different parts of the world, while performing their tasks and during exercise, to use those helicopters that are in the state of the allied army, primarily in the state of the United States army. Today, these helicopters, which are also very important to us, manufactured in Mielec, manufactured in cooperation with a large company from the United States, but manufactured by Polish employees in the Aviation Valley, are becoming part of the equipment of the Polish Special Forces."

"Soldiers of the Polish Special Forces deserve the best equipment, such equipment is entering service today" - said the head of the Ministry of National Defense Mariusz Błaszczak.

PZL Mielec president Janusz Zakręcki said - "Black Hawk helicopters are already operational today, but this is not their final configuration. They will be retrofitted in the near future. ”Currently, helicopters are in the first version and are intended mainly for training.

Black Hawk helicopters are equipped with a rope landing system and winches, 12.7 mm M3 machine guns and M134 7.62 mm M134 Minigun multi-barrel rifles. They have mounted communication radios with the encryption system (coded communication and data transmission system).

Helicopter components such as: optoelectronic head, self-defense system, flare ejectors will be installed in the second stage.

Construction Sikorsky-Mielec  Black Hawk S-70i.

Black Hawk medical. 2019. Photo by Karol Placha Hetman
Black Hawk medical. 2019. Photo by Karol Placha Hetman

Black Hawk medical. 2019. Photo by Karol Placha Hetman
Black Hawk medical. 2019. Photo by Karol Placha Hetman

Black Hawk medical. 2019. Photo by Karol Placha Hetman
Black Hawk medical. 2019. Photo by Karol Placha Hetman


The S-70 / UH-60 Black Hawk helicopter is built in the classic system - Sikorsky. It is a medium, twin-engine, all-metal, multirole helicopter.

The fuselage.

The fuselage made of aluminum alloys with the participation of composites (fiberglass and kevlar laminates). The floor in the cockpit and hold made of fiberglass and nomex laminate. The compass was also used in the tail beam. Such a beam is lighter by 10% than a traditional one made entirely of metal.

The helicopter has increased resistance to crush during a fall. In a collision with the ground with a vertical speed of 11.5 m / s and a horizontal velocity of 12.2 m / s, the structure of the helicopter should behave in 85%. It should withstand a horizontal acceleration of 20 g and vertical acceleration of 10 g.

The crew's armchairs are Kevlar armored. The entrance to the cockpit is provided by a car door on the left and right, with a height of 1.37 m. They can be denied emergency. The helicopter takes armed soldiers on board 11-14. After dismantling the middle seats, 4-6 pairs of stretchers or cargo can be mounted. The load compartment is heated and air-conditioned. The entrance to the hold is provided by a large sliding door on the left and right side, with a height of 1.75 m. The helicopter can take 105 mm howitzer, 50 missiles to it and a service consisting of 5 soldiers. The interior of the helicopter is 10.90 cubic meters.

The external suspension system has the designation ESSS, and consists of a set of catches fixed to the fuselage and four booms mounted to them. The total lifting capacity of the external suspension is 4,536 kg.

Vertical stabilization is the widened tip of the tail beam. In its interior is an intermediate gear and a propeller gear. The propeller placed on the right side.

Horizontal contour has a large surface, with a trapezoidal contour and variable angle wedged: from +34 degrees (during hover) to -6 degrees (with autorotation). Its automatic control system takes into account the flight speed of the helicopter as well as the inclination and lateral acceleration. Helicopter control is doubled electric and additionally manual, mechanical. The tail beam part is folded to the right.

The helicopter's chassis is three-support with a tail wheel. The main chassis has powerful shock absorbers from General Mechatronics. Pneumatics of the main landing gear wheels are 26x10.00-11 and the tail wheel 15x6.00. Main landing gear spacing: 2.70 m. Chassis base 8.83 m

Helicopter carrier rotor.

Four-blade bearing impeller, rectangular contour and Sikorsky SC-1095 profile with a relative thickness of 9.5%. The width of the rotor blades: 0.53 m. The central part of the blade has an overhang of the leading edge and a flap at the trailing edge to overcome the turbulence from the previous blade. The angle of the blade is 18 degrees. The tip of the blade is slanted, with an angle of 20 degrees. The blades have oval cross-sections, made of titanium. The blades is of a honeycomb type construction, made of nomexsu, with an epoxy-gray composite coating. The blade is also made of glass fiber composite. In addition, it is covered with a titanium cover. The tips of the blades were made of Kevlar. The blade isn't destroyed after piercing with a 23 mm caliber bullet. In the interior, the blade is filled with pressurized gas and has sensors that inform about the durability of the structure. Removal of ice from the leading edge is carried out by means of an electrical system.

Elastomer bearings of the rotor head by C / R Industries do not require lubrication. Vibration dampers are located in the head. The rotor head was designed for the manual folding of the blades. Rotor diameter: 16.36 m (53 ft 8 in).

Tail rotor of the helicopter

A four-blade tail propeller with a similar structure as the rotor blades. Also electrically de-iced. It is placed on the right side of the tail beam. It works as a pulling propeller. Its surface is deviated from the vertical to the left by an angle of 20 degrees. As a result, it produces a small upward thrust, which makes it easier to balance the helicopter and allows for a greater center of gravity. Diameter of the tail rotor: 3.35 m.

Helicopter main transmission.

The main transmission is in a conventional system. Two turbine engines with a free turbine, transmit the drive to the rotor and to the tail rotor. The main gearbox has a structure consisting of five modules. It is possible to work after total loss of oil for 30 minutes. The rotor head may be several inches downwards for aircraft hangar or carriage.

Helicopter powered

The power unit consists of two General Electric T700-GE-700 turbines with a capacity of 2 x 1 151 kW. The civilian version of the engine has the designation General Electric CT-7-2C. Their total power transferred to the transmission is 2,109 kW. The newer version is General Electric T700-GE-701 A with a starting power of 2 x 1 285 kW.

Engine construction: 5-degree axial, 1-degree radial, annular combustion chamber, 2-stage turbine, free turbine. 5: 1 compression, air flow 4.5 kg / s at 44 720 rpm. Free turbine with a rotational speed of 17,000 - 21,000 rpm. The engine was mainly made of AM-355 stainless steel. Dimensions 1.181 m x 0.635 m x 0.584 m.

Both engines are distant from each other, which makes it impossible to destroy them both with one projectile. In addition, they have fire barriers between each other. The engines are capable of operating in extreme climatic conditions, high resistance to the opponent's fire means, simple operation, small dimensions in relation to the power achieved. These engines are also used in Apache AH-64 helicopters.

The air inlets can be fitted with ring filters that capture 85% of air pollutants: sand and dust.

APU - type - Solar T-62T-40-1. The engine starting system is Garret. Additional installations for starting engines at extremely low temperatures are possible.

The fuel installation consists of two tanks located behind the loader with a total capacity of 1 340 liters. The tanks have high crush strength and are self-sealing. It is possible to mount additional tanks in the fuselage or on the outer booms.

Helicopter equipment

Electrical installation with voltage 24/28 V. Current generators manufactured by Bendix with 30/40 kVA and 20/30 kVA parameters. Nickel-cadmium batteries with a capacity of 17 Ah. Fire protection system with fire extinguishers installed in the drive compartment and in the fuselage. The installation is started automatically or manually.

Avionics (as of 1985)

Radio stations E-system AN / ARC-114 VHF-MF, Sylvania AN / ARC-114 UHF-AM, Magnavox AN / ARC-164 UHF-AM, Colins AN / ARC-186 VHF-AM / FM, transponder IFF Bendix AN / APX-100, radio communication encryption system Magnovox TSEC / KT-28, on-board telephone, Emerson AN / ARN-89 radiocomputer, Bendix AN / ARN-123 radio signal receiver, Sperry AN / ASN-128 girokompas, Honeywell AN / aPN radio altimeter -209, Melpar-Memcor AN / APR-39 radio warning receiver, infrared set Sanders AN / ALQ-144, automatic flight control system from Hamilton Standard with three-axis automatic remote control.

Specification (Data T-T) Black Hawk S-70i

Crew: two people
. Capacity: 14-17 seats / 12 soldiers / 6 stretchers. 
Load capacity: 4 072 kg (9,000 pounds)
. Length: 19.76 m (64 ft 10 in)
. Fuselage length: 15.26 m
. Length after folding the blades and tail beam: 12.60 m
. Fuselage width: 2.36 m
. Span of the horizontal stabilizer: 4.38 m
. Overall height: 5.13 m
. Diameter of the rotor: 16.36 m (53 ft 8 inches)
. Diameter of the tail rotor: 3.35 m
. Height: 5.33 m (17 ft 6 in)
. Own weight: 5347 kg (11.790 lb)
. Max. Starting weight: 9.979 kg (22 000 pounds)
. Internal fuel: 1360 L. 
Auxiliary fuel: internal tanks 2 x 700 liters, tank 1,705 liters (450 US gal) on deck and 872 liters (230 US gal) in tanks on each of pylons or 1 705 liters (450 US gal)
. Power unit: 2 × General Electric T700-GE-701D turbocharger, 1 409 kW (1.940 hp)
. Efficiency
; Maximum speed: 361 km / h (195 knots, 224 mph). 
Cruise speed: 163 knots (301.8 km / h), maximum cruise (149 knots, normal cruise)
. Range: 463 km, (288 m, 250 nm) with reserve of 20 min
. Useful ceiling: 6.096 m (20,000 ft)
. Lifting speed: 11.43 m / s (2.250 ft / m)

: Weapons: M240, MAG-58, M3M, Gau-19
. Missile missiles: Hydra. 
Missile missiles guided: Hellfire (x16).

Tally Sikorsky-Mielec  Black Hawk S-70i in Poland.

On December 20, 2019, the Polish Army, (Special Forces), 7th Special Action Squadron stationed at the 33rd Transport Aviation Base in Powidz, received the first four Black Hawk S-70i helicopters, version for special operations.

Written by Karol Placha Hetman