Radars 1950.

Kraków 2013-11-04


Nysa-A radar.

In 1950, the General Staff of the Polish Army transferred the T-T conditions for a radar warning station to the National Telecommunications Institute. The work was started by the Separate Design Laboratory (TL) at the Radio Works named after Marcin Kasprzak. The program was codenamed "Nysa". As early as 1951, a laboratory model of a radar operating on a 50 cm wavelength was developed. Some solutions were taken from the American TPS-3 radar. In 1952, a prototype called Nysa-A was ready. Five sets were built in the experimental plant and sent for military trials. The tests were carried out in the period 1953 - 1954. They turned out to be positive and that is why Zakłady Radiowe T-1 was established, which started the serial production of these radars.

The Nysa-A radar was designed as a mobile set from the very beginning. At that time, trucks were produced in Poland and the Lublin car was dedicated to the stations. However, the load capacity of the car turned out to be insufficient. Therefore, it was decided to use the chassis of the ZiŁ-150 (ZiS-150) car. The ZiŁ-150 (ZiS-150) truck was produced in the period 1947 - 1957. The drive is a 6-cylinder petrol engine with a capacity of 5,600 cm3 and a power of 90 HP. The engine drives the rear axle of the vehicle. The load capacity of the vehicle is 4,000 kg. Speed, laden 65 km / h. The Nysa-A Radar is the first Polish Emergency Radar. Basic data of the Nysa-A warning radar; Works in the 600 MHz band. Wave length 50 cm. Detection range 150 km.

Nysa-B radio altimeter.

Most of the radar stations developed so far in the world were two-coordinate. It gave the azimuth, i.e. the direction to the detected target (given in geographical degrees) and the distance (usually given in meters). The distance is calculated from the time the pulse must travel from the transmitter and, after bouncing back from the target, return to the receiver. Several methods have been developed to determine the cap. However, the most effective method turned out to be the use of a separate radar station to measure the height (ceiling) of the detected object. Therefore, in Poland, in 1955, the first radar for measuring altitude, designated Nysa-B, was developed. In 1957, serial production of this radar was started and it was introduced into the equipment of the Polish Army.

The radio altimeter is mounted on a wheeled trailer and is mobile. The parabolic antenna reflector is foldable for transport. Basic data of the Nysa-B radio altimeter; Radar altitude measurement station (RSPW). Power per pulse 1,000 kW. Wavelength 10 cm. Range 100 km. Equipped with an RH type indicator. The altimeter worked with the Nysa-C dual-coordinate radar (sometimes called rangefinder). The station was developed and produced by WZR RAWAR.

Bogota radio altimeter.

The Polish radio altimeter Bogota is designed to work with the Jawor radar. It was developed on the basis of the Nysa-B radio altimeter. The basic change was the replacement of the spark gap located in the thyratron modulator, and the LFB amplifier was introduced to the receiving circuits. The station is made in tube technology. The transmitter is made on a magnetron produced by CCCP. The station was mounted only on a wheeled chassis as a trailer. Basic data of the radio altimeter Bogota; Range 200 km. Wavelength 10 cm. Pulse repetition rate 200 pulses / sec. Measurement accuracy below 700 m for altitude. Measurement accuracy less than 1,000 m over distance. Power in a pulse of 700 kW.

Bogota radio altimeter. 2010 year. Photo by Karol Placha Hetman
Bogota radio altimeter. 2010 year. Photo by Karol Placha Hetman

Nysa-C radar.

The Nysa-C warning station was developed in parallel with the Nysa-B altimeter. Both prototypes were built simultaneously and trials were conducted together in 1955. Mass production was also started together and the sets were handed over to the Polish Army from 1957. The Nysa-B and Nysa-C kits were exported to, inter alia, to; Syria and Indonesia. Nysa-C was equipped with an antenna similar to a longwall antenna. Like the Nysa-B, the Nysa-C radar was mounted on a wheeled trailer. The idea of ​​radar mobility remained, but due to problems with obtaining truck chassis, a simpler solution was chosen. Such a set can be pulled by any truck or tractor. In fact, these sets stood for up to 6 months at the radar stations, and they were only taken for inspections, the so-called spring and autumn passages, or for renovation.

Basic Nysa-C radar data; Radar station also known as a rangefinder. Works on a 50 cm wave. Range 300 km. Power in a pulse 2 x 200 kW. It is equipped with a P and RH type indicator. The transmitter uses a magnetron with a linear modulator with a rotating spark gap. He collaborated with the Nysa-B altimeter. Development and production Polska WZR RAWAR.

Written by Karol Placha Hetman