PKP Bielsko Biała Główna. 2023

Bielsko Biała 2023-10-17

Bielsko Biała Główna railway station.

Geographic coordinates: 49.828N 19.045E. Elevation 315 m.

City of Bielsko-Biała.

The city of Bielsko Biała is located in southern Poland, in the Silesian Voivodeship, in the Bielsko agglomeration. The city was established in 1951 as a result of the merger of two cities; Bielsko, which was founded before 1312, and the town of Biała, which was founded in 1723. Bielsko Biała has an area of 124.51 square kilometers. The city is located in a mountainous area, at the foot of the Mały Beskids (from the south-east) and the Silesian Beskids (from the south-west). Therefore, the city's elevation is in the range of 262 - 1,117 m. The city is located on the Biała River and its tributaries. The city's population is 166,765 inhabitants (2023). From Bielsko-Biała to; Kraków is 81 km, Katowice is 61 km, Ostrava is 66 km. Warsaw is 337 km away.

Historically, the city lies on the border of Cieszyn Silesia and Lesser Poland (Kraków Land). The city was the center of the textile industry, and in the 20th century, the automotive industry. As a result of the partition of the Republic of Poland, the city fell under the Austro-Hungarian partition. During the 19th century, the Bielsko-Biała region became one of the three centers of the textile industry in Austria-Hungary, alongside Brno and Liberec. The machinery industry also developed. In 1918, the city returned to the reborn Republic of Poland. During the German occupation (1939-1945), the city was included in the German paradise. In the period 1975–1998, the city was the capital of the Bielsko Voivodeship.

Railway development.

In 1855, a branch of the Northern Railway was built from Dziedzice station to Bielsko. In 1877, this line was extended to Żywiec, and then connected to the Galician Transversal Railway, section Sucha - Żywiec. On the Bielsko - Żywiec section, in the city of Bielsk, a tunnel was built under the city center. About the tunnel is written below. In 1888, a railway connection with Cieszyn and Kalwaria Zebrzydowska was launched.

In 1840, the Austro-Hungarian Empire's railway plans in Galicia were not great. It was planned to connect Vienna with Lviv and Kiev. The role of Krakow was systematically degraded. In Chałupki it was planned to connect with the Prussian railways.

In 1883, the Austrian government issued a positive decision regarding the construction of a railway line connecting Kojetín with Bielsko, as part of the so-called Moravian-Silesian Cities Railway. In 1884, a consortium for the construction of this line was established and route planning began.

In 1855, a branch of the Northern Railway was built from Dziedzice station to Bielsko. The first train arrived in Bielsko on December 17, 1855. In 1877, this line was extended to Żywiec, and then connected to the Galician Transversal Railway, section Sucha - Żywiec. For strategic reasons, it was decided to extend this line to Kalwaria Zebrzydowska. In 1886, the KNFB obtained a license to operate connections on this route. In 1887, a new section from Bielsko to Andrychów was opened, and the entire route to Kalwaria was passable in 1888.

Bielsko Biała Główna station.

Bielsko Biała Główna. 2023 year. Photo by Karol Placha Hetman
Bielsko Biała Główna. 2023 year. Photo by Karol Placha Hetman

Bielsko Biała Główna. 2023 year. Photo by Karol Placha Hetman
Bielsko Biała Główna. 2023 year. Photo by Karol Placha Hetman

Bielsko Biała Główna. 2023 year. Photo by Karol Placha Hetman
Bielsko Biała Główna. 2023 year. Photo by Karol Placha Hetman

Bielsko Biała Główna. 2023 year. Photo by Karol Placha Hetman
Bielsko Biała Główna. 2023 year. Photo by Karol Placha Hetman

Bielsko Biała Główna. 2023 year. Photo by Karol Placha Hetman
Bielsko Biała Główna. 2023 year. Photo by Karol Placha Hetman

Bielsko Biała Główna. 2023 year. Photo by Karol Placha Hetman
Bielsko Biała Główna. 2023 year. Photo by Karol Placha Hetman

Photo description: The first station in Bielsko in the background.

Bielsko Biała Główna is the largest railway station in the city. It is a junction station. Railway lines run through the station; No. 117, No. 139, No. 190. Currently, passengers are served by the following carriers: InterCity, PolRegio, Koleje Śląskie.

Initially, the station in Bielsko was the terminus or head station. On the Bielsko - Żywiec section, in the city of Bielsk, a tunnel was built under the city center. About the tunnel is written below.

The first station building was put into operation in January 1856. The station building is a two-story building with a hipped roof and a slight slope. The attic is unusable. The building was built of brick. The building was symmetrical, with two avant-corps on the sides, but a northern wing was added during construction. In the front, on the track side, the building has 16 windows. All windows are identical, semi-circular at the top and equipped with eight panes each. Currently, the building has light gray plaster and a steel roof. The station turned out to be too small for the increasing traffic.

In Bisko, railway traffic was growing very quickly and therefore in 1887, a decision was made to build a new station. The platform hall was demolished, but the station building remained. Railway services were moved there and apartments were provided for railway workers' families. The building still exists (2023) and is located at Wałowa Street.

The new station was opened on February 26, 1890. The building has many shapes. It consists of three two-story buildings connected by single-story buildings. The main volumes are covered with hipped roofs. The connecting buildings are covered with gable roofs. The station facade is made of dark and light bricks. The roof is covered with dark tiles. On the side of the platforms, along the building, there is a roof supported by cast iron pillars. A separate station for the imperial and royal family was built on the western side, in the same style.

In 1968, the station was renovated. In 1994, the station was included on the list of monuments. In the period 1997-2000, the station underwent further renovation. During this renovation, the roof, windows and doors, and historical paintings were restored. The historic station received the title "Modernization of the Year 2001" and is located on the Technical Monuments Trail of the Silesian Voivodeship.

Bielsko Biała Główna station.

In 1900, a locomotive shed was built at today's Trakcyjna Street, between two trails that divide. The locomotive depot serviced steam locomotives operating in the Beskids region. From 1918, the plant operated PKP locomotives. The locomotive depot operated until 1964, when the steam locomotive service was moved to Zebrzydowice.

In 1920, a crane was launched at the Bielsk station, which was used to move wagons with hard coal onto tram bogies. These trains transported coal to other parts of the city. At that time, the city had a tram line.

The electrification of the railway line on the Dziedzice - Bielsko Biała Główna section was carried out in 1968. In later years, the remaining railway lines reaching Bielsko Biała were also electrified; in 1982, to Skoczów, in 1989, to Kalwaria Zebrzydowska.

In 1994, a small open-air museum of steam locomotives was established at the station, which was closed down in 2001 and the exhibits were moved to the open-air museum in Chabówka. Currently, there are holding tracks for passenger rolling stock in this place.

In 2009, as a result of railway cuts made by the Masonic governments in Poland, passenger trains on the Bielsko Biała - Cieszyn route were suspended. Then the traffic was suspended, but again in 2013, traffic on the Bielsko Biała - Skoczów section was suspended, and in 2015 the line was closed. It was only in 2017 that modernization works on the trails in the Bielsko Białan area began. In December 2018, modernization works on the Bielsko Biała Lipnik - Wilkowice Bystra section were completed, including the modernization of railway stops and tracks. This allowed to increase the speed of trains and shorten the travel time to Żywiec. In the summer of 2018, railway line No. 117 to Kalwaria Zebrzydowska Lanckorona was closed due to the poor technical condition of this line. After partial renovation, train traffic on this route was resumed in 2019.

Since 2015, Express InterCity Premium trains operated by ED250 Pendolino trains have been running from Warsaw to Bielsko Biała Główna station.

The Bielsko Biała Główna railway station has three platforms and 6 platform edges. Platform 1 is located at the station and is 350 m long, but the part with two edges is 190 m long. There is one track at Platform 1 that is impassable for trains heading towards Czechowice Dziedzice. Platforms 2 and 3 are island platforms and are 280 m long. There are two roofs on each platform to protect passengers from rain and snow.

There are convenient walking routes for passengers at the station. Access to the platforms is provided by a footbridge over the tracks, which connects; bus station, Warszawska Street, station square, platforms and Stefana Okrzei Street. There is also a tunnel in the southern part of the platforms. A passage has been left at track level for passengers in wheelchairs. Additionally, there is a tunnel under 3 Maja Street, which leads from the railway station to Jana Matejki Street.

There are several tracks at the station. The main tracks are at the platforms. On the eastern side of the station there are tracks for freight trains. Some of these tracks are unused. Four holding tracks for passenger trains are located in the north-western part of the station. There was a railway open-air museum here temporarily (1994-2001). Storage yards are located in the north-eastern part of the station.

The southern head of the station connects all tracks to one track towards Żywiec. The northern head of the station is very extensive. On the main double-track route No. 139, in front of the Bielsko Biała Północ passenger stop, there is a leading freight station with 5 tracks. The main tracks of lines No. 117 and 190, which are single-track, leave the Bielsko Biała Główna station in an arc to the right to the east and split. East on No. 117 to Kalwaria Zebrzydowska. No. 190 runs in an arc to the left towards the west and passes through a viaduct to line No. 139. In the place where route No. 117 and 190 split, there is a closed locomotive depot. The locomotive shed had a turntable. There are six stands left of the shed, which are ruins.

In Bielsko Biała, passenger traffic is systematically increasing, except for the period of the Chinese virus pandemic, when the station served only 1,390,000 passengers (2020). In 2022, there were already 1,860,000 passengers, which was a result similar to 2019, i.e. before the pandemic. In October 2023, 64 passenger trains departed from Bielsko Biała Główna station. These were trains to: Białystok, Bydgoszcz Główna, Gdynia Główna, Katowice, Kraków Główny, Milówka, Olsztyn Główny, Ustka, Wadowice, Warszawa Wschodnia, Zwardoń, Żywiec.

The railway tunnel in Bielsko-Biała.

The railway tunnel in Bielsko-Biała was built in 1876-1877 and is currently a part of the railway line No. 139. The Bielsko-Żywiec railway line was built by C.K. Emperor Ferdinand's Privileged Northern Railway. The tunnel was built under the very center of Bielsko, on the Bielsko Biała - Żywiec section. The length of the tunnel is 268 m. From the north, the tunnel runs under the square in front of the President Hotel, 3 Maja Street and Zamkowa Street. The height of the tunnel is about 6 m. The thickness of the tunnel ceiling is 1 - 2 m. There is one track in the tunnel. From the north, two tracks enter the tunnel, but one of them ends with a retaining trestle after a dozen or so meters. The gauges currently used do not allow for the laying of a second track and this is a bottleneck (not the only one) of railway line No. 139.

The construction of the tunnel was mostly financed by Archduke Albrecht Frederick Habsburg. Stone from a nearby quarry, now in the Straconka district, was used to build the tunnel. The tunnel was made by drilling and led in an arc. South of the tunnel, the railway track was laid in a deep trench. At that time, there were no plans to expand the city towards the south.

On September 1, 1939, the Germanic army invaded Poland. On the night of September 2-3, 1939, Polish sappers from the 21st Sapper Battalion blew up a tunnel to impede the movement of the German army. The tunnel was rebuilt and opened in mid-October 1939. According to other data, only in January 1940. The Germans used the Polish population of Jewish origin to rebuild the tunnel.

Currently (2023), in order to lay the second track, it is necessary to rebuild the entire tunnel, because there are canalized watercourses nearby that were built in the period 1860-1870. The width of the tunnel for the second track is sufficient, but it will not accommodate electric traction. The track should be lowered by 1 m.

In 2020, a feasibility study of the project - "Reconstruction of the tunnel in Bielsko-Biała" was started. According to the plans, the entire railway line No. 139 (to the state border) is to be double-tracked, with a maximum speed of 160 km/h. This would further reduce travel time and increase the route's capacity. According to PLK PKP, the task must be completed by completely rebuilding the tunnel and giving it a new geometry. There will be no trace of the current tunnel. The new tunnel must be slightly straightened, wider and higher, to ensure safety and evacuation. It will be built using the open-pit method. The designed speed in the tunnel is 90 km/h. The historic entrance portals to the tunnel and their new appearance will be agreed with the conservator of monuments. This is possible, as was proven in Krakow when the Grzegórzecki Viaduct was rebuilt and its historic appearance was preserved. If the United Right remains in power in Poland, the tunnel will be constructed within the next 4 years. With Freemasonry in power, the program will be stopped.

The topic of the tunnel will not end there. A passenger stop is planned on the southern side of the tunnel, which will be called Bielsko Biała Teatr. There will be two single-edge platforms at the stop. Access to the platforms will be provided by a footbridge over the tracks, stairs and elevators. Pedestrian traffic around the stop will be changed and adapted to new needs.

Railway lines.

There are three railway lines running through Bielsko Biała, all of which connect at the Bielsko-Biała Główna station.

Railway line No. 139 Katowice - Zwardoń.

On December 17, 1855, Bielsk was connected to Dziedzice station. On August 18, 1878, Bielsk gained a railway connection with Żywiec. The Katowice - Zwardoń line was opened in stages between 1852 and 1912. The line runs north-south.

Currently (2023) only part of the Northern Railway route (No. 139) lies within Poland. In Poland, the line is 113,695 km long. Bielsko Biała station is 55.713 km of line. The maximum speed on the route is 140 km/h, but on most of the route the speed of trains does not exceed 100 km/h. There are sections with speeds of up to 60 km/h. Most of the trail is double track. The single-track sections are: Bielsko Biała Główna - Bielsko Biała Lipniki (due to the tunnel in Bielsko) and Witkowice Bystra - Zwardoń.

The first section of the trail, Katowice - Ligoty, was opened on December 1, 1852. The section was managed by the Upper Silesian Railway. The Dziedzice - Bielsko section was opened on December 17, 1855. The Tychy - Dziedzice section was launched on November 15, 1868. The Bielsko - Żywiec section was opened on August 18, 1878. The Żywiec - Zwardoń section was launched on November 3, 1884. The Ligota - Tychy section was opened the latest, on November 2, 1912. The construction of the second track, on the Katowice - Bielsko Biała Główna section, was completed in 1963. The second track on the Bielsko Biała Lipnik – Wilkowice Bystra section was opened in 1990.

The electrification of the line was carried out in the period 1961-1986 and 2002. The line is electrified with a 3 kV DC traction network. In 1961, the Katowice - Katowice Ligota section was electrified. In 1963, the Katowice Ligota – Bielsko-Biała Główna section. In 1970, the Bielsko Biała Główna - Żywiec section. In 1986, the Żywiec – Zwardoń section. The last section (in 2002) was electrified from Zwardoń to Skalité-Serafínov.

As a result of attempts by the Masonic governments to liquidate the railways in Poland, in December 2007, long-distance trains were suspended on the Bielsko Biała - Zwardoń section. Only in June 2017, a contract was signed for the revitalization of the Bielsko Biała - Witkowice Bystra section, and then contracts for the renovation of other sections of the trail. In June 2018, long-distance InterCity trains were restored on line No. 139. Line No. 139 is served by; Koleje Śląskie, InterCity, PKP Cargo, CargoPolska.

Railway line No. 117 Kalwaria Zebrzydowska Lanckorona – Bielsko Biała Główna.

Railway line No. 117 Kalwaria Zebrzydowska Lanckorona – Bielsko Biała Główna is 59.195 km long. The line was electrified with a 3kV DC network in 1990. The maximum speed of trains is 80 km/h.

The line was built in the period 1885–1888. The entire Bielsko - Kalwaria route was opened on June 1, 1888. The line is single-track. The line runs east-west and covers voivodeships; Lesser Poland and Silesia. The line runs through cities; Wadowice, Andrychów and Kęty. The line is secondary and serves mainly residents and tourists. The line was opened on June 1, 1888 and was part of the Galician Transversal Railway. After the Great World War, after Poland regained independence, the Beskydy Mountains were divided between the Czech Republic, Slovakia and Poland. As a result, the stations in Zwardoń and Cieszyn became border stations. For Poland, stations; Bielsko Białan and Żywiec became very important. The railway system was finally approved after the division of Cieszyn Silesia. A border post was established in Cieszyn, on the Olza River. Let us remember that at that time, not all planned railway lines in the Beskids were completed.

The designation of the line encountered several protests from the owners of lands located along the route. There were a lot of problems on the Kalwaria Zebrzydowska - Wadowice section. And it wasn't that the tracks were supposed to run along the Kleczanka River, but on which side of the river. Another problem was on the Kęty - Bielsk section. Initially, a trail was planned along the Pisarzówka and Słonica rivers. Ultimately, the trail was laid through Kozy, further north, as the owner of these properties wanted. The owner of Kęty and his council were a big supporter of the construction of the railway line. The track was to run as close to the city center as possible. The land for the railway line in Kęty was provided free of charge.

Line No. 117 is technically very difficult and winding. The line has a difficult route with many curves, radii of less than 200 m and slopes of up to 18‰. The elevation at some stations is: Kalwaria Zebrzydowska Lanckorona 295 m, Wadowice 260 m, Andrychów 345 m, Kęty 275 m, Kozy 365 m. Generally, the trail runs along the National Road No. 52 and the Kleczanka and Bulówka rivers. The line crosses two rivers: Skawa and Soła. There are no tunnels on the trail, only two larger bridges. There is a two-span truss bridge on the Skawa River, 61 m long. The second bridge, 67 m long, is on the Soła River and has four spans, with one longer truss span. Experts on the subject sometimes criticize the route because it makes it impossible to reach a speed higher than 80 km/h. The problem is that the trail was marked out along the towns and main roads and serves the residents well, allowing them to reach Krakow, Katowice and Zakopane. The railway facilitated the development of local industry and tourism.

At stations along the line in Biała, Kozy, Kęty, Andrychów, Wadowice, Klecza Górna and Kalwaria Zebrzydowska; Railway stations typical of the Austro-Hungarian Empire were built, with plastered bricks and hipped roofs. A hipped roof is a steep gable roof. The cut corners of the slopes, which form the pediments, play an important role in its construction. The buildings included rooms for the traffic controller, ticket and baggage counters, a waiting room, a station restaurant, and on the first floor there were apartments for the station manager and the restaurateur. Toilets are located in a separate building.

At that time, stations typically had five station tracks; two main tracks and two side tracks and a track next to the storage yard and warehouse. It happened that the train, when leaving the route, entered from the main track, which was not straight ahead. However, when entering the station, he drove straight, unless he had to leave or pick up wagons here. The switches were moved manually. There were no traffic control signals, and drivers drove on the so-called "Scepter". There was one "Scepter" for the section between two stations. There was a timetable and a wired telegraph. Information and written orders were also provided.

The railway quickly gained new customers: companies and passengers. More tracks, storage yards and warehouses were added at many stations. Rich companies built their own railway sidings.

In 1899, the Wadowice station became a junction station due to the construction of the Trzebinia - Spytkowice - Wadowice - Skawce line. In 1906, KFNB was nationalized. New plans were made to build further railway routes. However, the outbreak of the Great World War stopped this development.

After the Great World War, the line came under the management of the Polish State Railways, which resulted in organizational changes. Initially, the rules and regulations were left in place. It took several years before Polish regulations and regulations came into force in individual directorates. New timetables were introduced that were adapted to the needs of Poland. Seasonal and long-distance trains were introduced; from Warsaw and Silesia to Zakopane. At the end of the 20th century, motor wagons (steam and diesel) were introduced for passenger traffic.

After the Germans' aggression against Poland, Polish military transports and evacuation trains passed along route No. 117 towards Krakow and further to Przemyśl. The last evacuation train from Wadowice towards the east left on September 3, 1939. Then, Polish sappers blew up the railway bridge on the Skawa River.

During the Germanic occupation, the areas west of the Skawa River, together with Wadowice, were incorporated into the paradise, and the areas on the eastern side were within the borders of the general government with administration in Kraków at Wawel Hill. A customs office and "SS" post were established at the Wadowice station, and the direct railway connections Bielsko - Kalwaria Zebrzydowska Lanckorona were closed. The bridge over the Skawa River was rebuilt. In February 1945, the bridge was blown up again, this time by the Germans.

After World War II, the destroyed bridges on Skawa and Soła were provisionally rebuilt as wooden ones. Replacement with steel spans took place in the 1950s. Due to the lack of rolling stock, freight wagons with wooden benches were used for passenger traffic, as Class 4. These wagons were called "Krowiak". There were a lot of "Boczniak" wagons, which were Class 2 and 3, which could still be seen in the 1960s. In 1962, Polish, modern wagons were introduced, compartmentless type 43A, called "Ryflak", produced by the Hipolit Cegielski plant in Poznań. In 1973, Bipa double-decker wagons, manufactured in the GDR, were introduced. Also in 1973, type 120A, Bwixt and "Bonanza" wagons were put into operation, developed in Wrocław at the PaFaWag factory.

The trains were pulled by steam locomotives: Tkt48, Ty2, Ty42, Tr202. The locomotives were serviced by the locomotive depot in Sucha. Diesel locomotives also ran along the trail; SM41, SM42, and a little later SP45 from the Kraków Płaszów locomotive depot. The SP45 diesel locomotive was the fastest on the route. However, the three-axle bogie system resulted in greater wear of the rails, and derailments also occurred. This resulted in the withdrawal of these locomotives from the route. In the 1960s, it was forbidden to use trains on the route; with two locomotives, in a pusher arrangement and locomotives with a Co'Co' axle arrangement. In the 1960s, there were about 10-12 pairs of passenger trains on the route, and about 6-8 pairs on the Trzebinia - Skawce line per day.

In the 1970s and 1980s, due to the permanent crisis of the socialist economy, steam locomotives returned to the roads. They had the advantage that they were fired with hard coal, of which there was plenty, and the locomotives provided good heating for passenger cars, equipped with steam heating. These were mainly Ty2 locomotives and their derivatives, which were serviced by the locomotive depot in Chabówka.

In 1990, the electrification and modernization of the Kalwaria - Bielsko Biała section was completed. In March 1990, the Kalwaria - Wadowice section was electrified, and in December 1990, the Wadowice - Bielsko Biała section. Many kilometers of rails were replaced, platforms were rebuilt, mechanical SRK devices were replaced with electric relays with traffic lights. After electrification, passenger traffic on the Kalwaria Zebrzydowska Lanckorona - Bielsko Biała Główna line was taken over by electric multiple units of the EN57 and EN71 series, which were operated by the locomotive depot in Sucha Beskidzka. Long-distance passenger and freight trains were operated by EU07 electric locomotives from the Kraków Prokocim locomotive depot.

In 1999, on the Kalwaria Zebrzydowska Lanckorona - Wadowice section, the flow of passengers was; approximately 500 passengers per day, and on the Wadowice - Bielsko Biała section, approximately 2,500 passengers per day.

On August 6, 2001, due to flooding, the bridge over the Soła River in Kęty was damaged. The bridge was repaired thanks to the efforts of local governments and put into operation on January 27, 2003. At that time, 8 pairs of passenger trains were launched per day. Among them, the accelerated train Szczecin - Zakopane and Katowice - Zakopane returned.

Saint John Paul II has in Poland not only the "Papal Helicopter", but also the "Papal Train". "The Pope's Train" is an EMU unit EN61-001, 14WE-07, built in 2006 by NEWAG in Nowy Sącz. The train belongs to Przewozy Regionalne, currently PolRegio. The train runs on the route Kraków Główny - Sanctuary of Divine Mercy - Kalwaria - Wadowice , i.e. the so-called "Papal Trail", since 2006.

As a result of PKP cuts, in 2010, passenger train traffic was suspended on the Kalwaria Zebrzydowska - Wadowice and Wadowice - Bielsko Biała sections. In 2014, after partial repairs, passenger train traffic was restored during the holiday season. But the speed of these trains was 40-60 km/h. Among other things, it ran trains; Upper Silesia - Zakopane and Krakow - Żywiec. Since 2016, carriers; PolRegio, Koleje Śląskie and InterCity are testing passenger trains in the summer and winter seasons. It turned out that there was great interest from travelers. Nevertheless, more modernization of this very picturesque route is necessary.

In 2013, the operation of the Bielsko Biała - Wadowice route was taken over by Koleje Śląskie. The report was marked S52. Due to the lack of sufficient rolling stock, the connection was served by other carriers, as intermediaries, with very different rolling stock.

During World Youth Day in July 2016, numerous additional trains appeared on the route, running on the Kraków - Wadowice section.

In 2018, PLK announced a tender for the renovation of the Kalwaria Zebrzydowska - Kęty section, 36,400 km long. But in May 2019, the tender was canceled. A new tender was announced and the trail was divided into sections; Kalwaria Zebrzydowska - Wadowice, Wadowice - Kęty. As a result of long discussions on the scope of modernization, Skanska started the renovation of the Kalwaria Zebrzydowska - Wadowice section. As part of the renovation, a slip road will be constructed in Kalwaria Zebrzydowska between lines No. 97 and No. 117. The slip road was built in June 2023. All works are scheduled to be completed in spring 2024. It is assumed that the entire route will be modernized by 2027. Currently (October 2023), traffic on the Kalwaria Zebrzydowska - Wadowice section is served by buses.

The following works are carried out during modernization; Replacement of wooden sleepers with pre-tensioned concrete sleepers or "Y" steel sleepers. The screw fastenings of the "K" type are replaced with spring fastenings, usually of the SB-3 type. The contact rails are replaced with contactless rails.

In January 2023, the renovation of the Wadowice - Andrychów section was completed. New tracks were laid on this section, the overhead contact line was replaced and the stops were renovated. After this modernization, the speed of trains doubled, from 40 to 80 km/h. To increase the safety of drivers on this section, some railway crossings were closed. In the Wadowice area, in order not to hinder the access of some residents to their homes, a new road was built along the railway tracks. The remaining rail and road crossings were equipped with traffic lights to warn of an approaching train.

A rail-road crossing equipped with automatic traffic lights is a Type C crossing. Type C means a crossing with automatic traffic lights or activated by railway employees. In Poland, the number of this type of crossings is approximately 12% and their number is constantly growing, because Type D crossings are being modernized to this category, of which currently there are as many as 55%. Type D is a crossing without barriers, half-barriers or automatic traffic lights. Before Type C and D crossings there is a warning road sign A-10, i.e. a black locomotive. Behind this sign there are white and red G-1 cones that inform us about the distance to the crossing. Just before the crossing there is a Saint Andrew's cross "X", and an additional beam in the shape of "^" informs that the crossing is multi-track. At the crossing there is a traffic light "S2" - two red flashing lights "STOP", which automatically starts the moving train. Additionally, there is a road sign "STOP", which requires stopping. Remember that a car traveling at 100 km/h brakes in a distance of 40 m. A train moving at a similar speed needs 1,000 m to stop.

The investment cost of modernizing the Wadowice - Andrychów railway section is PLN 129 million. The project was co-financed by the European Union from the European Regional Development Fund under the Regional Operational Program of the Małopolska Voivodeship.

Let us recall that the Masonic governments in Poland closed approximately 2,000 km of railway lines. According to their propaganda, this was supposed to save PLN 60-80 million a year. The governments of the United Right have started fighting against communication exclusion. In 2018, work began on 49 railway sections excluded from passenger traffic, with a total length of 1,150 km. These included railway line No. 117. It was the result of consultations with carriers, local governments and business entities. The Małopolskie Voivodeship strongly supported the modernization of Line No. 117. In 2023, Koleje Śląskie launched 7 pairs of trains on the Bielsko Biała - Wadowice route on weekdays and 5 pairs of trains on holidays.

Railway line No. 190 Bielsko-Biała Główna – Cieszyn.

The railway line No. 190 Bielsko-Biała Główna – Cieszyn is 40.658 km long. The line is electrified. The line was built in 1888, during the Austro-Hungarian partition, as the Moravian-Silesian Cities Railway. The line was nationalized on January 1, 1906. The line ran from Kojetín through Wałaskie Międzyrzecze, Frydek (now in the Czech Republic), Cieszyn, Goleszów and Skoczów to Bielsko. Currently, the line is of secondary importance, except for the section 21,506 - 28,780 km, where it has the status of state importance.

Rope No. 190 runs through: Bielsko Biała (0.000 km, elevation 315 m), Bielsko Biała Wapiennica (7.240 km, elevation 353 m), Jaworze Jasienica (10.770 km, elevation 341 m), Pogórze (18.650 km, elevation 292 m), Skoczów (22,180 m, elevation 297 m), Goleszów (28,440 km, elevation 338 m), Cieszyn (38,620 km, elevation 275 m), state border (40,658 km).

Electrification was done in stages; 1974, 1982–1983, 1994. The electrification of the Skoczów - Goleszów section was completed on December 23, 1974, and the Bielsko Biała Główna - Skoczów section on December 29, 1982, and the Goleszów - Cieszyn section of the line was electrified on May 28, 1983. The Cieszyn – Český Těšín section was electrified in 1994.

The line was launched on June 1, 1888. After the division of Cieszyn Silesia between Poland and Czechoslovakia, a border post was established on the railway bridge on the Olza River in Cieszyn. The Polish section is Bielsko Biała - Cieszyn. After World War II, passenger train traffic was restored on October 19, 1945.

As a result of railway cuts, on January 10, 2009, trains on the Bielsko Biała Główna - Cieszyn route were suspended. The courses returned for the summer holidays of 2009. On December 13, 2009, international connections Cieszyn - Český Těšín were suspended. On September 12, 2009, there was a second suspension of services on the Bielsko Biała - Skoczów route.

In February 2013, the Masonic government in Poland approved a list of railway lines intended for liquidation. Among them was the Bielsko Biała - Cieszyn line, excluding the Skoczów - Goleszów section. On October 16, 2013, railway traffic was closed on the Bielsko Biała - Skoczów section. In 2014, the traction network was even decommissioned. However, local governments protested.

PLK PKP conducted a study on the renovation of route No. 190. In October 2019, PKP Polskie Linie Kolejowe signed a contract for the renovation of the line on the Skoczów - Cieszyn section, including the reconstruction of platforms, adaptation of the line to a speed of 80 - 120 km/h by replacing tracks, turnouts and traffic control devices. In the same program, the renovation of the Goleszów - Wisła Głębce section was started. On September 4, 2022, passenger traffic was restored on the Skoczów - Cieszyn section.

In April 2023, PLK PKP decided to modernize railway line No. 190 on the Bielsko Biała - Skoczów section. The first train will run in 2030. The modernization of a 22 km section will cost approximately PLN 350 million. The railway route will be built practically from scratch. The maximum speed will be 100 km/h. The route itself and the passenger stops will be corrected. The line will also benefit residents from the Czech Republic, who will be able to reach Krakow via an alternative route. At least 8 pairs of trains will run on the route. The railway will reduce car traffic. Over 650,000 people live in this area.

Written by Karol Placha Hetman