Centralne Studium Samolotów. CSS-10, CSS-11. - History

Category: Airplanes Last change: February 2020 History Construction Tally

Kraków 2020-02-14

055b Section 1948-09-03

Centralne Studium Samolotów. CSS-10, CSS-11.



CSS-10 registration SP-BAK. Photo of LAC
CSS-10 registration SP-BAK. Photo of LAC

CSS-11 registration SP-BAH. Photo of LAC
CSS-11 registration SP-BAH. Photo of LAC


Immediately after World War II, there was no favorable atmosphere in Poland to open the aviation industry. Despite this, in 1946, at the initiative of professor Franciszek Misztal from the Warsaw University of Technology, the Central Aircraft Study (CSS) was created in Warsaw. CSS was a type of design office that had its own aircraft prototype workshop. CSS were not a factory.

At CSS, engineer Franciszek Misztal gathered pre-war aviation engineers and young students.

In 1946, the CSS office received an order from the Ministry of Communication to develop 3 aircraft: school, training, aerobatic and passenger. In 1947, the design of a school aircraft was first developed, which was named CSS-10. The designers of the aircraft were Franciszek Misztal and Stanisław Lasota.

Since the construction of the CSS-10 aircraft in the workshop at Okęcie was impossible, the construction of prototypes began at WSK PZL Mielec. The project has been amended. A Walter Mikron II engine with 65 HP (48 kW) was used. Therefore, the aircraft designation was changed to CSS-10 A. The CSS-10 A prototype, the first flight made on 1948-09-03.

The CSS-10 aircraft was transported to Warsaw to the Central Institute of Aviation. At GIL, the aircraft was tested. The aircraft did not achieve good performance because the engine was of low power. Due to the low engine power in relation to the total weight, the aircraft had a long take-off, low climb and unsatisfactory properties in stall and corkscrew.

Another prototype marked CSS-10 C was equipped with a Walter Minor 4-III engine, 105 HP (77 kW). In addition, the wing received a slight slant. The first flight was made on 1949-04-24. This aircraft was also transported to GIL. The aircraft tests were good and the aircraft was approved for aerobatics. In 1952, the aircraft was subjected to state tests, as a result of which the aircraft was approved for flights as a training and training aircraft. It was planned to build 40 aircraft of this type, but due to the lack of engines, the project was not implemented.

At that time, license production was planned for Poland. Engine production was not undertaken.

It was planned to produce 40 aircraft of this type, but due to the lack of Walter Minor 4-III engines, the project was eventually abandoned.

In 1952, planes were put behind the hangar. The CSS-10 A aircraft was destroyed (1955). In 1955, the CSS-10 C aircraft was renovated by the members of the Warsaw Aero Club at Okęcie. The aircraft was shown at the Okęcie Air Show (1956). For the plane to fly, it was necessary to renovate the landing gear, which was not made. In 1960 the plane was canceled.

There was also the design of the aircraft, which was designated CSS-10 B. It differed from the CSS-10 C in a covered cabin. This prototype was not built.


CSS-11 is a plane very similar to CSS-10. Works on both constructions were carried out in parallel. The CSS-11 aircraft was built under the direction of engineer Leszek Dulęba. In April 1947, Leszek Dulęba was appointed Head of the Airframe Team. Two CSS-11 prototypes were built in the CSS workshop.

On 1948-10-18, the first prototype made the first flight. The pilot was J. Szymankiewicz. Both aircraft were handed over to GIL for approval tests.

The CSS-11 was successful. It had good volatile properties. The performance was better than expected. The plane performed aerobatic figures correctly and easily got out of the corkscrew. In the assessment of the aircraft it was written that the CSS-11 aircraft is suitable for training and aerobatics.

Like CSS-10, it was planned to launch serial production of CSS-11 aircraft. The production was to be 30 machines. No engines stood in the way. License production of Walter engines in Poland has not started. In 1952-1953, for political reasons, both prototypes were deleted.

Written by Karol Placha Hetman