Radom - Sadkow airport.
Geographic coordinates: 51.388N 21.212E.
History of the City of Radom.
Radom is a beautiful and typically Polish city. Its history is long and very interesting. The vicinity of today's Radom was already inhabited in the Mesolithic era (8,000 - 4,400 years BC). The inhabitants were engaged in hunting, fishing, animal husbandry, and later also farming. The first mentions of a settlement founded by Slavic tribes date back to the turn of the 8th and 9th centuries AD. The settlement was founded on an artificial embankment in the valley of the Mleczna River. In the 10th century, the settlement is transformed into a fortified town, where trade has been developing since the 11th century. Also in the 11th century, the first wooden church was built, dedicated to Saint Peter. That is why this part of the later Town was called Piotrówka. The first records about the settlement can be found in the bull of Pope Hadrian IV, written in 1155.
At the beginning of the 12th century, Kasztelania Radomska was founded. It was located on the Polish Law, and then on the Średzki Law (13th century). Around 1300, a second brick church was built, dedicated to Saint Wenceslaus of Bohemia. It was a period of temporary takeover of power in the Republic of Poland by the Czech rulers. The city developed very dynamically, mainly due to its location at the intersection of important communication routes. As a result, many powerful lords came to the city, who granted various reliefs and privileges. The times of Casimir the Great are a special chapter in the history of the city. This monarch created a defensive belt on the border of Lesser Poland against invasions from Ruthenia and Lithuania. As part of this project, in the period 1340-1360, the ruler moved the city to another place. In this way, a very heavily fortified Nowy Radom was created. The walls surrounding it were built using a new method, using field stones and bricks, which significantly increased the solidity of the walls. There were three gates in the walls: Krakowska, otherwise known as Iłżecka (at the intersection of today's Wałowa and Krakowska streets), Piotrkowska (near today's Szpitalna Street) and Lubelska (crossing today's Rwańska Street). Inside the walls there was a market square, a defensive castle and the church of St. John the Baptist. Shortly after the location of the City, the existing Średzki Law was replaced by the more favorable Western Law, which provided the inhabitants of Radom with municipal self-government and an influence on the development of the settlement. Thanks to the constantly progressing development, the city gained more and more prestige and socio-economic and political importance. The literature says that Radom was the informal capital of Poland for two years. There was a very good school here, with a two-level education system, the importance of which is evidenced by the fact that its graduates later became outstanding students of the Krakow Academy. During the reign of the Jagiellonian dynasty, Radom was the scene of important events not only for the Republic of Poland, but also for Europe. It was here that in 1401, the first act of the union between Poland and Lithuania, known as the "Union of Radom and Vilnius", was signed, and in 1505, the nobility gathered at the Radom Sejm adopted one of the most significant acts of the country's internal policy - the Nihil novi constitution. The city, however, also had its failures. Frequent fires destroyed the stronghold, and the lack of a large number of townspeople prevented its quick reconstruction. From the second half of the 16th century, the economy of this region experienced a period of stagnation, and already in the twenties of the 17th century, the time of failure for the city of Radom began. The bad streak began with the plague that hit Radom in the period 1622-1623, and after it, in 1628, there was a great fire. The city suffered the greatest losses during the Swedish invasion and the Transylvanian invasion. In general, from that moment on, hard times came for the Republic of Poland. At that time, among others, the royal castle and the monastery of the Benedictine nuns, located behind the Lublin Gate, were destroyed. The losses in the City's population were also huge. In 1661, the city had only 395 people. The pace of rebuilding the city was very slow, but the work carried out gradually began to bring results. Even new buildings were added to the Benedictine Monastery.
Practically, since the Swedish Deluge, the city has been in constant contact with the army. During this invasion, the Polish Banner was in Radom under the command of the starost of Radom, Mikołaj Podlodowski. But the unit had to go to Warsaw's aid. Several times in Radom, the uncouth King Charles X Gustav, commanding the Swedish army, stayed with his army. In December 1655, 6,000 Swedish troops passed through the city. And in February 1656, the Swedish army of 11,000 marched on Lvov. Near Zakrzew, near Radom, the Banner of the Castellan of Sandomierz, Stanisław Witowski, tried to stop them. The Swedes located a regiment of dragoons in Radom. The Swedish army was driven out of Radom on August 6, 1656 by the troops of Tomasz Zamojski and Piotr Czarniecki coming from Jasna Góra. The Swedes burnt down the city during their retreat. On August 21, 1656, near Radom, King John Casimir, together with the commanders (Stefan Czarniecki) issued a universal calling on peasants to fight against the Swedes. However, already in January 1657, the Prince of Transylvania, George II Rakoczy, invaded the Republic of Poland. It was a vandal expedition, without much political intention. But during it, Radom suffered greatly.
In 1682, the Piarist Order was brought to Radom, which significantly contributed to the development of education. The order established the first school in the tenement houses of the Market Square, and in 1785, also on their initiative, a college was established, the building of which was designed by Antonio Solari. The high level of teaching, a rich library and a very good school theater were decisive in awarding various types of remuneration to the monks. The Order received sums of money or land for conducting such effective educational activities. Currently, the building of the college houses the District Museum. In 1767, in Radom, the Catholic nobility formed a confederation against the reforms of Stanisław August Poniatowski and the Czartoryski family. At that time, the cardinal rights of the nobility (liberum veto, free election, the right to terminate obedience to the king) were considered inviolable. The inhabitants of Radom also took part in the Kościuszko Uprising. In 1794, troops under the command of Tadeusz Kościuszko passed through Radom, setting up a camp in the nearby village of Kozłów. A small unit under the command of Dąbek alias Dobek was formed in the city, and was soon broken up near the village of Lipowe Pole near Opatów by the Muscovites under the command of Denisov.
After the third partition of the Republic of Poland, the city found itself under Austrian rule. At that time, it was the capital of the district and the place where a large garrison of Austrian troops was stationed. The city was then surrounded by walls, but there were no barracks in them. That is why their buildings were taken from the monks and turned into barracks. The same fate befell the parish buildings.
Liberation from the Austrian partition took place on June 30, 1809. In July 1809, in Radom, the commander-in-chief of the Polish Army, Prince Józef Poniatowski, met with General Jan Henryk Dąbrowski and other members of the officer corps. The 2nd Cavalry Regiment of Lieutenant Colonel M. Fredro was solemnly welcomed in the city, which was to establish the office of the department of the Duchy of Warsaw.
In March 1810, the Duchy was divided into 4 military districts covering 2 or 3 departments, with seats in Warsaw, Poznań, Lublin and Radom. General Michał Sokolnicki became the head of the Radom district. His power extended far beyond administrative functions. These included training, intelligence and organizational matters. The 15th Infantry Regiment was assigned to the Radom Military District No. 4 (in May 1811, it was part of the 1st brigade of the 16th Infantry Division of General Józef Zajączek).
After Radom was incorporated into the Grand Duchy of Warsaw, it became the capital of a department, military and judicial district, going through a period of strange and chaotic development as an administrative, service and economic center. Most of the buildings converted by the Austrians into military facilities remained with the same purpose. The military headquarters was located in the building of the current Town Hall in Radom. Military stables were located in the village of Zamłynie (now an integral part of the city). The military warehouse was located at Plac Targowy (currently Stare Miasto Square). For at least several years, a military field hospital functioned in the city, for which the facilities of the OO monastery were used. Bernardine.
Napoleon's defeat resulted in the entry of the Muscovite army into the city at the beginning of 1813. Consequently, in 1815, the Kingdom of Poland was created, which was loyal to the tsar. At that time, the Tsar's brother, Grand Duke Konstanty Mikołajewicz Romanov, was at the head of the Polish Army.
As a result of the findings of the Congress of Vienna, Radom received the rank of the capital of the Sandomierz Voivodeship, which was later renamed the Radom Governorate. After incorporating the Kielce Governorate into it (1845), Radom became the most important center of state power in the area between the Vistula and Pilica rivers. At the same time, the urban and architectural layout of Radom, which had previously been in a bad condition, was dealt with. But those who believe that these changes were to benefit the City are wrong. They were to serve to consolidate the military strength of subsequent occupiers. The Catholic Church suffered the greatest losses. The wooden church in Piotrówka was demolished. The Benedictine nuns were expelled and the convent was turned into a prison. For secular purposes, the Piarist college was rebuilt. Many poor houses were demolished, and the inhabitants were conscripted into the army or exiled. Many streets have been straightened. Three lazarets were erected, which became widely available to the civilian population only years later. A new town hall was erected. In the place of the former poor houses, the Old Garden was created, i.e. the first public park planted with many unique species of trees and ornamental shrubs. In addition, the construction of the building of the Sandomierz Voivodeship Commission, designed by Antonio Corazzi, began at Lubelska Street. So something similar to the building of the provincial committee of the Polish United Workers' Party, in the years 1944-1989. The development of the city enabled the creation of new craft workshops. The first printing house and several bookstores were opened. As a result, a modern Sunday crafts school was organized for students and apprentices of local manufacturing and service plants. In the field of education, the Piarist college was still the leader, from which a secular elementary school was separated over time.
During the Polish national uprisings (November and January Uprisings), Radom was an important place for the organization of insurgent units, as well as the activities of the conspirators, concentrated around the OO church. Bernardine. Later, it was the site of investigations and trials of insurgents who were hanged, shot, subjected to severe repressions or sent to Siberia.
On November 30, 1830, Radom received a message about the outbreak of the Warsaw Uprising, caused by conspirators from the Cadet School. But General Antoni Giełgud delayed going to help the insurgents, waiting for the orders of the great Prince Konstanty. It was only under the threat of civilian conspirators' pistols that he gave the order to march troops to Warsaw. The conspirators were supported by the artillery battery of Captain Franciszek Łapiński and the adjutant of General Jan Krukowiecki, Captain Łoś, who came from Warsaw. All military units along with artillery marched from Radom to help the capital. The leaders of the November Uprising believed that Radom would become a base supplying recruits. Supply warehouses and uniform warehouses were set up here, and scythes, pikes and lances were produced in the forges of Suchedniów, Sansonów and Kozienice. Later, the production of rifles and ammunition was launched.
After the army marched out, the "Security Guard" was organized in the city, armed with pikes and scythes, under the command of Jacek Kochanowski and the 1st Radom Mobile Guard Battalion of Major Antoni Korycki, as well as the 3rd and 4th Battalions of the 5th Line Infantry Regiment, and after their After leaving for the front line, Lieutenant Colonel Paweł Muchowski formed a new Line Infantry Regiment No. 11. At that time, Colonel Piotr Łagowski formed a squadron of Sandomierz cavalry, and Gustaw Małachowski - a unit of customs shooters. A military hospital was organized in Radom, for which dressings and bandages were prepared by the inhabitants of the city. These activities were suddenly interrupted on the night of February 16/17, 1831, by the Moscow corps of general Cyprian Kreutz, numbering 3,500 soldiers, who, with the strength of 16 cavalry squadrons, 8 Cossack hundreds and 16 cannons, occupied Lublin, Puławy and entered Radom. Neither the poorly armed national guard nor the newly formed regular army units could oppose him.
Soon, the Muscovites were defeated near Nowa Wieś and driven across the Vistula by General Józef Dwernicki, which enabled the continuation of work in Radom for the fighting Polish unit for the next six months. The situation changed a few months later. In August 1831, the Muscovites again crossed the Vistula, and already in September 1831, towards Warsaw, the corps of field marshal Ivan Paskevich marched from the north. General Teodor Rüdiger, led by 12,000 soldiers, entered the Radom area and finally took Radom. After the fall of the November Uprising, the governor of the Kingdom of Poland, Field Marshal Iwan Paskiewicz, took over the city.
Radom played an even greater role in the January Uprising. At the beginning of January 1863, General Marian Langiewicz secretly came to Radom as the capital of the governorate. The general quickly realized that the 1,200-strong Muscovite garrison stationed in the city was too strong for the poorly armed and trained conspirators. Despite this, he headed the insurgent units. On the night of January 22/23, 1963, an uprising broke out. Conspirators from Radom and the surrounding area decided to attack two smaller garrisons. Already on the first day of the uprising, 140 people gathered in Siczki by Narcyz Figietti, defeated 4 companies of the 2nd Regiment of Sappers stationed in Jedlnia and captured 40 rifles. The insurgents succeeded in the attack: they killed 9 people, wounded 11, including the commander Captain Witkowski, disarmed half of them, and the rest managed to escape under the command of the non-commissioned officer. It was one of the greatest insurgent successes achieved during the January night in the whole country. After the attacks, all Sandomierz troops marched towards Wąchock, where Marian Langiewicz appointed a rallying point for the armed forces of the voivodeship. His troops were constantly reinforced by volunteers, including students from the Radom gymnasium. However, the insurgents suffered mostly defeats, including in the Battle of Szydłowiec. In February 1863, after heavy fighting, some of the Polish troops were defeated, and some retreated to the Świętokrzyskie Mountains. In April 1863, Muscovites occupied all of Radom. On July 8, 1863, the monastery of OO. Bernardów was turned into a prison for insurgents and repressions began. The uprising finally died out in the fall of 1864.
Several months after the January Uprising, Radom began to grow again. The population was increasing. Many new buildings were built. A railway line running from Dąbrowa Górnicza through Radom to Dęblin was built. Around 1869, the construction of the sewage system began. In 1901, the municipal power plant was launched. At the turn of the century, the city was dominated by the tannery and food industries. There was a glassworks and an iron foundry. Cultural life was less developed, but the theater functioned. A large group of workers actively participated in political life. Mainly two trends dominated; socialist and national-democratic. Thanks to this, numerous strikes, marches, manifestations and, above all, anti-Moscow demonstrations were organised. But Radom was at that time a strong garrison of Muscovites, which in 1907 numbered about 4,500 soldiers.
In June 1914, the Great World War broke out. At that time, the headquarters of the 2nd Rifle Brigade, the 5th Rifle Regiment and the 2nd Rifle Artillery Squadron were located in the city. In August 1914, Radom was occupied by the German army for several days. In July 1915, Radom was occupied by Austrian troops. But this situation gave the opportunity to create the Polish Legions in Galicia. Already in August 1915, the first platoon of volunteers to the Polish Legions set off from Radom. In November 1918, members of the Polish Military Organization disarmed the Austrians and seized power in Radom. The occupier surrendered without firing a shot. On November 9, 1918, at At 12:00, at 3 Maja Square, the Polish Army was sworn in to the Provisional People's Government of the Republic of Poland by Ignacy Daszyński. Just after regaining independence in 1918, IV. (Radomski) squadron of the 11th Legionary Lancers Regiment and the 1st battalion of the 25th Infantry Regiment.
During the Polish-Bolshevik war, the inhabitants of Radom actively supported the Polish Army. Volunteer troops were formed and weapons and ammunition were produced.
After the Great World War, Radom became the seat of the municipal starosty and the Radom poviat, in the created Kielce Voivodeship. In the first ten years of independence, the population grew by more than 15,000; from 61,600 people (1921) to 77,900 people (1931).
Radom became a strong center of strengthening patriotic and national-liberation traditions. Numerous unions of veterans, war invalids, reservists and legionnaires were established. In 1930, in Radom, the IX. Congress of the Polish Legions with the participation of Marshal Józef Piłsudski himself.
The world crisis of the 1930s also affected Radom. Industrial production fell by half. Fortunately, this situation did not last too long. Soon, the Government of the Republic of Poland decided to place Radom, in the so-called security triangle, with numerous factories. The State Arms Factory, as well as the Cigarette Factory and several other larger plants were built here, which improved the economic situation of the city. In addition, a water supply network, a bathhouse, a gasworks, four elementary schools were established, and social and cultural activities were revived. Cinemas and theaters were established. The position of libraries, publishing houses and sports clubs was getting stronger and stronger. Before the invasion of the German army, the population of Radom reached 100,000 inhabitants. During the period of the Second Republic of Poland, Radom was still a strong garrison center. In addition to the 11th Legionary Lancers Regiment, they were stationed here; 24th Infantry Regiment, 28th Light Artillery Regiment, 72nd Infantry Regiment named after Dionizy Czachowski. These units underwent various reforms.
During World War II, Radom shared the tragic fate of the entire Republic of Poland. The first bombs of the German army fell on Radom on September 1, 1939. The 72nd Infantry Regiment suffered heavy casualties in the defensive war. The 93rd Infantry Regiment, fighting in the "Radom" group, was also mobilized in Radom. On September 8, 1939, German tanks entered the city. There was another new occupant in Radom. The Germans organized a POW camp and several hospitals for their soldiers. The norm in the city was; round-ups, deportations, repressions, arrests, executions. The number of people who suffered from these forms of Germanic terror is incalculable. It is estimated at 50,000 people. In addition, all evidence of Polishness and patriotism was consistently destroyed. The material situation, especially the housing situation, was dire due to the constant influx of refugees and displaced persons. Mainly from the Polish Borderlands and the Zamość region. Radom was subordinated by the German army to the general government until the "complete solution of the Polish question". Despite the enormous harassment, the Polish Armed Underground was extremely active. it worked; Radom Combat Organization, Service to Poland's Victory, Independent Poland and Gray Ranks. Already in 1940, the structures of the Home Army were active. There were structures of the Peasant Battalions, the National Military Organization, the People's Guard. The inhabitants of Radom conducted well-organized underground activities. They organized clandestine teaching and sabotage actions. Among the operations carried out by the resistance movement in Radom, the attack on the "German house" and the breaking up of the local Labor Office gained the greatest publicity.
At dawn on January 16, 1945, Radom was occupied by the Red Army, led by the armored corps of Mikhail Orlov, who in 1975 was awarded the title of honorary citizen of the city by the Radom communists.
In January 1945, just after the front had passed, a rivalry between the left-wing coalition formed by the PPR and PPS and the PSL began in Radom. But the communists, controlled from the Kremlin, quickly took control of the situation and introduced their own governments. There were numerous repressions of the security apparatus against people who thought in Polish and did not agree with the new occupation. The introduction of the new order was carried out by the security office, supported by the operational group of the Internal Security Corps (KBW). The battalion-sized corps was officially established on February 12, 1948, although it had been performing its tasks since 1946. The main task of the KBW was the liquidation of the armed underground in the form of Home Army units; Tadeusz Zieliński "Needles", Antoni Szeliga "Wichra" and Aleksander Młyński "Drągal". The staff functioned at the seat of the Poviat Public Security Office (PUBP) in Radom. It should be remembered that by 1948, the Home Army had about 300,000 soldiers under arms. The units of the Polish People's Army stationed in Radom were subordinated to the 2nd Infantry Division, with headquarters in Kielce.
In 1946, Radom had only 69,500 inhabitants. Within five years, the number of inhabitants increased to 80,000 people (1950). Mainly through forced migration of the population. In 1975, an administrative reform was carried out and Radom became the capital of the Radom Province until 1999.
On June 25, 1976, the famous workers' protest took place in response to very high increases in the prices of food and industrial products. These were the so-called "Radom Events", which resulted in numerous arrests and severe repressions. This concerned not only the participants themselves, but also completely random people.
Another chance for a decent life in Radom was born in 1980, with the creation of the labor and social movement NSZZ Solidarność. But Comrade General Wojciech Jaruzelski efficiently introduced martial law, keeping communism alive. Until 1990, Radom was a thriving industrial center. Factories such as; Łucznik, Radoskor, Radom Telephone Factory, Radom Tobacco. However, communist directors and managers, elected from the party key, were unable to manage them. This was the main reason for the poor economic performance.
In 1989, socio-economic changes took place in Poland. However, the lack of lustration and decommunization led to a situation in which communist crimes were not accounted for, and the guilty still live in affluence. Former communist directors turned into managers. Plants began to divide, collapse and sell. Instead of introducing new technologies and covering the growing market demand. The result was rising unemployment.
In 1999, a new administrative reform was carried out. Radom once again became the seat of the starosty in the Mazowieckie Voivodship, whose capital is Warsaw. From 1945 to 2000, the administrative area of Radom increased threefold. In 2000, Radom had about 240,000 inhabitants.
Currently (2011) Radom's biggest problem is the highest unemployment rate in the Republic of Poland. The elderly live on benefits or pensions of the oldest generation, and the young leave for Western Europe. Currently, Radom is a Poviat-Grodzkie Town located in the southern part of the Mazowieckie Voivodeship. Fourteenth largest city in Poland. Radom is the capital of the Diocese of Radom.
In the following articles there is a history of the airport in Radom.
Written by Karol Placha Hetman