History Construction Tally

Podlaska Wytwórnia Samolotów. Combat aircraft.

Kraków 2020-04-27

Podlaska Wytwórnia Samolotów in Białej Podlaskiej.

Combat aircraft.



The newly founded Podlasie Aircraft Factory "PWS" began its activity from the production of Potez XV A2 aircraft, which were built on the basis of a license. A group of French engineers and technicians came to Biała Podlaska to start production.

Potez XV A2 is a line aircraft. The designer was Henri Potez. The plane built at PWS in 1924-1926. 35 aircraft were built. The first flight was made on 1925-06-09. The pilot was Franciszek Rudkowski.

The next aircraft was Potez XXVII A2. Potez XXVII A2 is a linear, developmental aircraft Potez XV. The aircraft built at PWS with a license in 1925-1926. 155 aircraft were built. First flight around 1926-02-18 year. The pilot was Franciszek Rudkowski.

Potez XXV is a line aircraft. The aircraft built at PWS with a license in 1926-1929. 50 aircraft were built. First flight of 1926. The pilot was Franciszek Rudkowski. Potez XV and Potez XXV planes were produced in parallel at the Lublin plant.


PWS-1. 1927 year. Photo of LAC
PWS-1. 1927 year. Photo of LAC

The PWS-1 aircraft was its first own construction. The aircraft was created for the needs of the Polish Army. The PWS-1 is a two-seat fighter and line aircraft. The constructors were engineers Zbysław Ciołkosz and Aleksander Grzędzielski. 1927 year. One prototype was built. First flight 1927-04-25 year. Pilot Franciszek Rudkowski.

Although the plane had good performance, it turned out that the PWS-1 was not very manoeuvrable, turned badly on the first flight. Therefore, in 1928, the aircraft underwent modification. The aircraft received PWS-1a. The vertical stabilizer was significantly expanded. At the request of the army, the aircraft received an additional fuel tank. The military also demanded that the aircraft could be quickly rebuilt from a hunting version to a destructive one and vice versa.

During work on the PWS-1 aircraft, wings were expected to be changed to a metal structure. The designation PWS-1 bis was predicted for this aircraft. After modifications, the PWS-1a aircraft turned out to be much heavier. The first flight of PWS-1a took place in early 1929. But the plane is not good. Performance has dropped. The aircraft ceased to arouse interest of the army and on 1929-10-29 work on it was discontinued.


PWS-5t2. Photo of LAC
PWS-5t2. Photo of LAC

The PWS-5 aircraft was another construction of the PWS label. Initially, the PWS-5 was designed as a connecting airplane, then accompanying, and finally a light combat aircraft. Work on the aircraft began at the beginning of 1928. The PWS-5 aircraft was initially designated as PWS-7 and was established as a private initiative of the Podlasie Aircraft Factory. The aim was to create an aircraft that was cheap to manufacture and operate, but with good flight parameters and piloting properties. The constructors were engineers Aleksander Grzędzielski and August Bobek-Zdaniewski.

The PWS-5 aircraft was developed as a wooden biplane. A good but weak Wright Whirlwind J5B engine with 220 HP was used for the drive. The prototype was flown on 1928-12-28 by pilot Franciszek Rudkowski. One prototype was built.

At that time, the PWS-5 aircraft was reported to the Department of Aviation of the Ministry of Military Affairs as a proposal of a liaison aircraft, which was to accompany land forces on the front line.

Tests have shown good pilot properties of the aircraft. The Polish Army confirmed interest and commissioned further work taking into account comments. The second prototype, marked PWS-5a, was flown in February 1929. The PWS-5a aircraft had a changed vertical tail and a rebuilt engine bed. Only one prototype was built, which underwent trials at IBTL in Warsaw.

The PWS-5a aircraft was compared with the competitive Lublin R-X and PZL Ł-2 aircraft were rated better and the Lublin R-X aircraft was selected for production. However, the army decided to buy several PZL Ł-2 and PWS-5a machines as well. In October 1929, the PWS-5a took fifth place in the 1st Flight of South-West Poland.

Defects revealed in the PWS-5a were acceptable to the army. Therefore, an order was made for a batch of five aircraft. The planes were built, flown and handed over to the army in August 1929. The aircraft were given the designation PWS-5t2, type 51 and serial numbers from 51-3 to 51-7. The numbers were because PWS-5 No. 51-1 and PWS-5a No. 51-2 planes were the property of the army. The aircraft were used as a line, for towing aerial targets and training on-board shooters.

PWS-5t2 aircraft were deprived of ailerons on the lower plane, the hubcap was added to the propeller hub and the shooter-observer's cabin was rebuilt.

PWS-5t2 aircraft were directed to school units in Grudziądz and Bydgoszcz. In the summer of 1930, two PWS-5t2 planes were assigned to the River Aviation Squadron in Pinsk, where they operated from the landing pad located at Wolańskie Bridges. It soon turned out that planes with a wheeled undercarriage are not suitable for wetlands. Amphibious aircraft were searched. The PWS-5t2 aircraft were used until the end of 1932 for auxiliary purposes, among others for towing sleeves for training in in-flight shooting.


PWS-6. Photo of LAC
PWS-6. Photo of LAC

PWS-6. 1929-1931 year. The constructors were engineers Aleksander Grzędzielski and August Bobek-Zdaniewski. One prototype was built, which flew in the late 1930s, pilot Franciszek Rudkowski. The PWS-6 aircraft was a continuation of the PWS-5 machine. The differences between the planes were significant. The wings have been improved. The upper wing on the leading edge received slots. The wing tips have been rounded. The flapper was mounted on the lower wing.

The prototype was flown at the end of 1930. In mid-1931, the aircraft underwent tests at the Institute of Aviation Technical Research in Warsaw. Tests showed good piloting properties, short landing and much better performance than PWS-5, using the same engine. The plane was also suitable for aerobatics.

The PWS-6 aircraft did not enter production, because after comparative tests of the PWS-6, PZL Ł-2 and Lublin R-X aircraft, the latter was already sent to serial production.


PWS-10. Photo of LAC
PWS-10. Photo of LAC

PWS-10. 1929-1932 year. Fighter plane. The constructors were engineers Aleksander Grzędzielski and August Bobek-Zdaniewski. The first flight was made in March 1930, pilot Franciszek Rudkowski. Two prototypes and 80 serial copies were built.

At the end of 1928, military aviation ordered the construction of two prototype aircraft. In March 1930, the first prototype was flown. In the second half of 1930, the prototype underwent trials in Warsaw at IBTL.

The propulsion of the PWS-10 aircraft was the Lorraine-Dietrich LD-12Eb engine, the same as in the Blériot SPAD S-61C1. Therefore, the aircraft was immediately treated as a transition structure. The application of this engine to the new airframe contributed to the reduction of its performance.

The second prototype PWS-10 / II was designed to house the Bristol "Jupiter VIIF" engine for comparative flight tests. The airframe was designed so that after the tests it was possible to build the Lorraine-Dietrich LD-12Eb engine in it. The Polish Army ordered 50 copies, which was increased to 80 copies. In the spring of 1931, production began, at the end of 1931, the first serial aircraft were ready. The last planes were delivered to the army in August 1932. All machines entered the armament of hunting squadrons.

In 1933, PWS-10 aircraft were replaced in fighter squadrons by PZL P-7a aircraft. PWS-10 aircraft were directed to the Aviation School of Shooting and Bombardment in Grudziądz, then to the College of Pilotage in Grudziądz, as well as to CWOL in Dęblin and CWTL in Bydgoszcz. From 1938, PWS-10 aircraft were phased out. In September 1939, 10 copies of PWS-10 were in the composition of the keys, issued for the defense of the school in Dęblin. Several PWS-10 aircraft were taken over by the German army after seizing the airports in Dęblin and Ułęż, and at least two were taken over by the Red Army.

In 1936, 20 PWS-10 aircraft were sold to Spain (Franko's army), through Portugal. They entered service in Spain, receiving the official name "Chiquita". The aircraft were used as training-fighter until 1938, when the last 11 copies were deleted.

In December 1930, the PWS-15 aircraft was flown, a biplane version of the PWS-10 aircraft. Designers Aleksander Grzędzielski and August Bobek-Zdaniewski. No serial production.


AVIA BH-33 / PWS-A. 1929-1930. Fighter aircraft, produced under license. The constructors were engineers Paweł Beneš and Miroslav Hajna. 50 pieces were built. Buying a license for the AVIA BH-33 aircraft was not quite understandable. Presumably, they wanted to get knowledge about the applied construction solutions in Czechoslovakia. Just like it was with the British Avro 621 Tutor.


PWS-19. Photo of LAC
PWS-19. Photo of LAC

PWS-19. 1931-1933 year. Reconnaissance bomber. The constructors were engineers Zbysław Ciołkosz and Antoni Uszacki. Two prototypes were built. The first was flown in September 1931, and the pilot was Franciszek Rutkowski.

At the end of 1929, work began on a new aircraft in the Podlasie Aircraft Factory. By design, the plane was to be the successor of the combat Potez XXV and Breguet XIX.

The first design of the aircraft was completed 1930-07-02 and was marked PWS-19. At the same time, it was proposed that the aircraft was built simultaneously in two versions: A2 reconnaissance and B2 bomb. In the bomb version, the bombs were initially to be placed under the hull, but later it was decided to place the bomb charge inside the hull, which was to improve the aerodynamic properties.

The PWS-19 was designed as a high-wing aircraft, which gave a better downward field of view. For the first time, a double vertical tail was used on the Polish aircraft, which provides a wide angle of fire. The armament consists of a fixed machine gun operated by the pilot and double coupled rifles on the turret of the shooter-observer, it was also assumed the possibility of installing another fourth machine gun shooting down, in place of the camera.

Originally, the engineers wanted to use the Bristol Jupiter VII F engine as the power unit, but this engine was expensive at the time. In November 1930, a second project was carried out, in which the Pratt & Whitney "Hornet" T-2 engine with 525 hp was planned.

Two prototypes were built, which were built at the expense of PWS. The first prototype was intended for ground tests in Biała Podlaska, under the supervision of the Institute of Aviation Technical Research. The second prototype was intended for flight tests and was flown in August 1931.

In the spring of 1932, the PWS-19 aircraft underwent tests in Warsaw at IBTL. Tests have shown that the machine has insufficient steerability and directional stability.

The third prototype of the PWS-19 aircraft was completed in 1932-08-04, taking into account the results of tests carried out at IBTL. The tail area has been increased, the engine cover has been modified, and wind deflectors have been used. A load of bombs, suspended under the hull and braces, was transferred to two bomb chambers located in the hull. After the modification, PWS-19 was again transferred to IBTL.

On 1933-03-17, there was a disaster over the airport in Warsaw. During the dive, the wings deformed and the plane was in an inverted position from which the pilot could not get the plane out. Pilot Kazimierz Kazimierczuk jump out with a parachute, and the machine crashed into the ground. There was a mechanic in the second cabin who died. The commission investigating the causes of the disaster stated that there was a jamming of the horizontal angle adjustment cable.

After the disaster, work on PWS-19 was suspended because the results of tests of the competitive PZL-23 "Karaś" were awaited. Ultimately, the design of the PWS-19 aircraft was abandoned in 1935.

In 1932, the PWS label based on the PWS-19 aircraft developed a design for the PWS-17 M2 aircraft, which was to be smaller and lighter, as well as possessing greater firepower than PWS-19. It was planned that the PWS-17 was also to be a night fighter version. The PWS-17 project has not been implemented.

PZL P-11g Kobuz.

PZL P-11g Kobuz. 1939. Fighter aircraft developed at Państwowe Zakłady Lotnicze. In 1939, preparations were made for serial production at PWS. Due to the German invasion of Poland, production did not take place.

Written by Karol Placha Hetman