Nowe Miasto nad Pilicą 2012-08-08
The airport Nowe Miasto nad Pilicą.
New Town on the Pilica River.
Nowe Miasto nad Pilica is a beautiful Polish Town. It is located in the central part of the Republic of Poland, in the Mazowieckie Province (in the south-western part), in the Grójec County. Nowe Miasto nad Pilica is the seat of the Municipal and Rural Commune. Geographically, it lies in the Białobrzeska Valley, on the Pilica River, which is the left tributary of the Vistula.
The city covers an area of 1 114 hectares. The area of the commune is 15,847 hectares. The commune has 28 villages and 32 villages. The commune is typically agricultural. There are 1,800 farms on its territory with the acreage from 5 to 50 hectares. The crops cover 65% of the commune's area. Forests cover 23% of the area, which is the national average. In addition, the commune has attractive places for recreation. The southern part is made of forests around water reservoirs, creating charming nooks and magnificent views, rarely found in this part of Poland. There are holiday centers on the Pilica escarpment.
The Central Railway Main Line, connecting Silesia via Warsaw with the Coast, runs through the north-western part of the commune. The following towns are closest to the New Town on the Pilica River; Radom 58 km, Warsaw 79 km, Łódź 90 km, Kielce 99 km, Grójec 36 km, Tomaszów Mazowiecki 45 km, Rawa Mazowiecka 29 km.
The history of the New Town on the Pilica river.
The history of Nowe Miasto nad Pilica is as beautiful and as tragic as the history of the Republic of Poland. Nowe Miasto nad Pilica grew out of a market village called Pobiedna. The area where Nowe Miasto nad Pilica was established can be proud of archaeological finds dating back to the Paleolithic and Mesolithic epochs. This proves that it was a convenient area for the development of settlement.
The location privilege was issued by the Duke of Mazovia, Ziemowit IV on December 27, 1400. Pobiedna was then the property of the long-time teacer of Rawa - Szybota, was his hereditary village. The coat of arms of the City, depicting a tower and two swords on a red field, comes from this period. Together with the foundation act, Nowe Miasto was granted the privilege to import and sell salt mined in Wieliczka and Bochnia.
The New Town on the Pilica River, lying on the trade routes connecting Toruń with Lviv and Warsaw with Kraków, was considered significant. Wealthy nobility lived in the area, stimulating development. One of the noble families of the Rawicz coat of arms took the surname of Nowomiejski. Hence the current name of the city.
In the first half of the 17th century, a part of Nowe Miasto was in the possession of the crown swordfish by Jan Zebrzydowski. Due to the Swedish invasion, known as the "Swedish Deluge", the Rawska Land was significantly damaged. The period of the Northern Wars and the partitions of the Republic of Poland had a tragic impact on the New Town on the Pilica River.
At the end of the 17th century, Aleksander Lipski became the co-owner of the New Town, and then his son-in-law Franciszek Granowski. They both did a lot to rebuild the City. Franciszek started the construction of a residence - a palace, which was completed by his son Kazimierz. The palace and park complex in Nowe Miasto nad Pilica is situated on the northern edge of the Pilica River valley, on the southern tip of the escarpment. The park stretches from ul. Tomaszowska to the edge of the escarpment, and then it descends towards the river along the slope of the escarpment. The beginning of the construction of the palace is attributed to Franciszek Hieronim Granowski, general of the Crown troops. It was supposed to take place around 1735. However, in 1756, the palace was completed by the son of Franciszek Hieronim - Kazimierz Granowski, the starost of Radom (1745), the voivode of Rawa (1757) and the general-lieutenant of the crown troops (1759). Kazimierz Granowski concentrated in his hands all parts of the New Town estates and in 1753 he became their sole owner. After his death in 1774, the successors sold the Nowe Miasto and its goods to Ignacy Świdziński, the starost of Lityński.
Kazimierz Granowski contributed to the construction of the church and monastery of O.O. Capuchins, which began to be built in the 60-years of the 18th century. A wooden bridge over the Pilica river was also erected, and the planned development of the city was taken care of. In the second half of the 18th century, the property of the New Town passed into the hands of Ignacy Świdziński, and in 1795, it was taken over by the Małachowski family. At the end of the 18th century, there were over 100 houses in the city with a population of about 900. At that time, it was quite a significant center of trade and craft production. The city was known especially for its St. Martin's market.
In the nineteenth century, Nowe Miasto had an extremely difficult situation. Dziedzic Małachowski limited himself only to collecting the due duties from the city, without investing completely in its development. The relations between the townspeople and the heir of the New Town were bad. At that time, cloth workshops and tanneries operated in the city. In 1857, 2,887 people lived in Nowe Miasto, including 1,128 Poles and 1,759 Jews. As a result of the administrative reform of 1870, Nowe Miasto nad Pilica lost its municipal rights.
The good climatic conditions and the charms of Ziemia Rawska were noticed by holidaymakers and patients. In 1873, Dr. Jan Bieliński established a health resort in Nowe Miasto nad Pilica, which was then called the Institute of Natural Medicine. Mainly patients with tuberculosis and people exhausted nervously were treated with massages and various baths. Most patients came from Łódź and Warsaw, but also patients from Moscow, St. Petersburg, London and even New York. The health resort attracted eminent figures of Polish culture, writers, poets and politicians. In the 80s and 90s of the 19th century, Ignacy Paderewski gave concerts here, and Eliza Orzeszkowa gave a lecture. The plant operated until the Great World War.
In Nowe Miasto nad Pilica there is a very famous Capuchin Monastery. At the turn of the 19th and 20th centuries, the Blessed Father Honorat Koźmiński resided there. In the museum at the monastery, there are personal belongings of the Blessed One, and in the Temple, his relics. Since 1997, the Blessed Father Honorat Koźmiński has been the patron of the City.
During the events of the revolution in the east in the period 1905-1907, in the New Town in December 1905, a patriotic and religious manifestation took place among the inhabitants of the city and the surrounding villages. There have been arrests for anti-Moscow activities.
During the Great World War in October 1914, there was a fierce battle on the front along the line Nowe Miasto - Rawa - Jeżów. The New Town was then shelled by the artillery of the German army. The later years of the war caused considerable damage.
After the war and after the Republic of Poland regained independence, a cloth factory was opened in the New Town. The city did not play a major role as a commercial center at the time. Construction of roads with a hardened surface began. Such roads were built to Grójec, Rawa and Końskie. A narrow-gauge railway line was also built to connect Nowe Miasto with Warsaw. Before 1921, 3,761 people lived in Nowe Miasto, and in 1931, 3,877 people.
On September 1, 1939, the German army invaded the Republic of Poland. On September 8, 1939, at 7; 35, 1st Panzer Division of the German army seized Nowe Miasto. Almost immediately, the Union of Retaliation, the Polish Armed Unit, started its activity, which when the Home Army was founded, joined its structures. There were also units of Peasant Battalions operating in the commune. There was a ghetto in the city, from which over 2,000 Jews were transported to the places of extermination, and then several hundred Poles. The city was within the borders of the general governorate. On January 17, 1945, the Russian army passed through the city. The occupation of the German army was turned into a 44-year occupation by the Moscow army. After the Second World War, the city was incorporated into the Łódź Province. Until 1954, the city was the seat of the Góra Commune. After the Second World War, there was a difficult period of organizing the state administration. A Civic Militia post and the Municipal Cooperative "Samopomoc Chłopska" were organized. A group of activists made efforts to obtain a permit from the poviat, provincial and central authorities to open a Secondary School in the Granowski Palace. The rebuilt court granary was to be used as a boarding house.
Thanks to the initiative of a few residents, it was possible to build: a housing estate, a hospital, a hydrophore, a city cinema, a high school building, two primary schools and a kindergarten, a market, a butcher's shop, a bakery, a department store, food pavilions, a bus station, and a local clinic. Water supply and sewage systems were built. Electrification was completed and street lighting was installed. A city stadium was built.
In 1953, the Military Unit was established, which influenced the development of the city for many years. Thanks to the Military Unit, a housing estate for military families was created, as well as an officers' club, which can be used by the city's residents, commercial facilities, a nursery, and a kindergarten. Many inhabitants of the city were employed.
On May 13, 1958, a devastating hurricane passed through the city. It caused significant material losses. Among other things, the SAN bus was turned upside down, which was completely destroyed. Roofs have been torn off from many buildings. Residents were also affected. 9 people were injured. According to available information, no one was killed.
In the following years, two production plants were established: the Branch of Zakłady Radiowych Kasprzaka in Warsaw, employing 60 people, mainly women, and the Branch of the Machine Tool Factory "Mechanicy" in Pruszków, employing about 100 men, mainly turners and grinders.
After administrative changes in 1975, the city was incorporated into the Radom Province. In 1985, the Regional Museum was opened, which collects souvenirs testifying to the rich history of the city and the region. After the socio-economic transformations of 1989, councilors started to modernize streets, build a biological sewage treatment plant, set up waterworks in nearby villages, and develop the land for the construction of new housing estates. After administrative changes in 1998, the city was incorporated into the Mazowieckie Voivodeship.
According to the data as of December 31, 2010, the city had 3,862 inhabitants, and the Commune - 8,700 people. In 2005, the area of the Airport was incorporated into the administrative boundaries of the City, but was still managed by the Military Property Agency.
On October 12, 2010, one of the most tragic road accidents in Poland took place on the road leading through the city. A car carrying seasonal workers happened to a truck. 18 people were killed.
The KS Pilica football club has been operating in the city for many years. In 2008, the city stadium was partially rebuilt. A complete renovation was completed in 2011. Currently, the stadium has 592 seats.
The remains of the splendor of the city is the palace complex from the 18th century, rebuilt several times. The complex is included in the list of legally protected monuments.
The history of the Nowe Miasto nad Pilica airport.
The Nowe Miasto nad Pilicie airport is a typical Polish airport, created as a result of orders from Moscow, ordering Poland to expand its armed forces beyond the defense needs of the Polish People's Republic. The decision to build an airport in this place was made in 1951. The airport has been included in the airport system surrounding Warsaw from the west. The location of the airport was determined by the paved road running through Grójec to Warsaw and the already existing narrow-gauge railway, also connecting Nowe Miasto nad Pilica with Warsaw.
The airport is located just 2 km from the city center, in a forest complex and on farmland. The first geodetic works began on November 15, 1953. It was already at the time when most of the newly planned airports were already operational. The land was already owned by the state, because the owners had already been expropriated. Part of the land belonged to the State Forests, so there was no problem. In fact, the airport was located in the area of Nowe Miasto nad Pilica and the town of Łęgoniec. It occupied the area of the former land estate and city fields. Several dozen hectares of forest were cleared for construction.
This investment, like any military investment from the Cold War period, was top secret. The Military Unit received only the number. Additionally, the place was given a misleading name; Romanów village. In the spring of 1954, the construction of RWY with a concrete surface began. It was 2,000 m long and 60 m wide. It was extended in 60 years during one of the renovations. At the same time, taxiways and airplanes were built.
At that time (1954), many facilities were already built and put into operation. The airport consisted of a barracks part, social facilities, buildings and structures fulfilling various technical and logistic functions, and airports with extensive airport infrastructure. Most of the buildings are single and multi-storey brick buildings, warehouses and open, semi-open and closed warehouses. These facilities were equipped with the necessary installations (electricity, water, sewage, ventilation). The airport was equipped with an energy, water and sewage network. The airport has its own water outlet. The area is lit and fenced. The airport took up about 510 hectares.
By the end of 1954, it was put into operation; staff building, pass office, guardhouse, aircraft workshop, two large warehouses, two bunkers and a transformer station. Also in 1954, most of the MPS facilities were built. Interestingly, the first administration and warehouse building of the MPS complex was built in 1951. In 1955, a large barracks building was put into use. The building is identical to the barracks built at the Łask Airport. In addition, in 1955, it was put into operation; compressor room, battery room, airport building, technical building, boiler room, bath room and warehouse.
Initially, the airport was used by the air squadrons of the Radom School Regiment, i.e. the airport was subordinate to the Officers' Aviation School No. 5 in Radom, which was formed in 1951. Having two airports (Radom and Nowe Miasto nad Pilica), it was possible to make better use of the flying days and increase the possible raid of young pilots. Let us remind you that at that time, the production of Lim-1/2 fighters was already underway, for which there was not enough trained pilots.
In 1956, more airport facilities were put into use; two warehouses and another hydrophore plant. At that time, a car park had already been organized, with two large garages commissioned for use. Also in 1956, a farm began to function, in which the first piggery was put into use.
Written by Karol Placha Hetman