Mikojan i Guriewicz MiG-21 PFM. 2010.

Kraków 2010-03-09


198c Section 1966-02-04.

OKB Mikojan and Guriewicz MiG-21 PFM in Poland.

MiG-21 PFM nb 01. Czyżyny 2009. Photo by Karol Placha Hetman
MiG-21 PFM nb 01. Czyżyny 2009. Photo by Karol Placha Hetman

Construction MiG-21 PFM typ 94.

Single-seat, single-engine, supersonic fighter aircraft. Equipped with RP-21 M Sapfir radar station.

The following changes were made to the MiG-21 PF;

· A new engine with an installation for blowing on SPS dampers was used.

· The aircraft can take off with SPRD-99 accelerators.

· A new modernized ejection chair has been used.

· The changed seat made it possible to change the cabin glazing to a permanent windbreak and a fairing tilted to the right.

· The horizontal pattern has an enlarged surface and a changed shape.

· The parachute shortening the run down went from the container under the engine nozzle to the container under the rudder. Thanks to this it is possible to release the parachute before the touchdown.

· The aircraft is equipped with a device for escaping to a horizontal flight from any situation, e.g. when a pilot has lost spatial orientation.

· The Radiolocation Station and other avionics equipment have been modified.

"Delta" wing with chamfered ends, 57 degrees slant, total area 23 m2, symmetrical wing profile CAGI S-12, relative thickness 4.2% at the base and 5% at the end, wedging 0 degrees, rise -2 degrees, chord u bases 5.97 m, at the end 0.46 m, the structure is the main, auxiliary, front and rear girder. Covering 1.5 to 2.5 mm thick. There are two fuel tanks in each wing. Under the wings, 2 nodes for armament. The wings are equipped with ailerons with a total area of 1.18 m2, swing out 20 degrees. The dampers are equipped with a blowing system, SPS system, area 1.84 m2, they are tilted for takeoff by 25 degrees, for landing by 45 degrees.

Fuselage with frontal air grip, with central movable cone. The cone from the speed of the Ma-1.5 plane begins to move forward and at the speed of Ma-1.9 it occupies the extreme extended position. The cone is equipped with a wall suction system. The axis of the cone is inclined 3 degrees downwards. The cone moves 20 cm, and on the ground during operation it can be extended by 60 cm. The cone is made of 14 mm thick radio-transparent material. Behind the cone, the channel divides into two to bypass the cabin on the sides. The channel is equipped with anti-pump flaps and additional grips at the cabin height. These grips are equipped with covers to prevent foreign bodies being sucked in from the ground under the front wheel. The airframe was equipped with three aerodynamic brakes. The first two are a pair and are placed in front of the main chassis. They have an area of 2 x 0.442 m2. Swing out SA after 350. A third aerodynamic brake was placed under the fuselage with the main landing gear. It has an area of 0.47 m2, is perforated and tilted by 40 degrees. The SPRD-99 U2 start accelerators with adjustable thrust from 1 280 kG can be attached to the hull. up to 3,230 kG., and thus different operating times - from 9.8 seconds to 17.8 seconds. The weight of one is 221 kg. An aerodynamic steering wheel was placed after the fuselage. The braking parachute with an area of 19 m2, can be released at a speed of 320 km / h and discarded after braking. Hermetic cabin and automatically air-conditioned. The pilot can wear either a suit with tight Chełm or a suit with an oxygen mask. The KM-1 M armchair provides rescue at 130-1200 km / h and 0 m height. The cabin cover consists of a windbreak with 55 mm thick armored glass. It is de-iced by spraying with spirit. Wind deflector to the right, manually. Horizontal slab formation, area 3.94 m2, span 3.74 m, rake angle 550, deflection down 7.50, up 16.50. anti-flutter mass at the ends. Vertical fixture with a bevel angle of 610211, relative thickness 6%. Ballast surface 5.32 m2, rudder 0.965 m2, swing 25 degrees.

Chassis with all single wheels. All wheels with disc brakes. The front shin is retracted forward. Wheel size 500 x 180, pressure 7 atm. Shimmy muffler on the shin. Main wheel size 800 x 200, pressure up to 8 atm. Chassis spacing 2.787 m., Base 4.71 m.

The MiG-21 PFM power unit.

R-11 F2S-300 power unit with 1 x 4 020 kG. Post-combustion thrust, with 1 x 6 175 kG afterburning. Single-flow engine, two-shaft, 3 stages of one shaft compressor, 3 stages of the other, 1 turbine of one shaft and 1 turbine of the other shaft, afterburner. Engine length 4.61 m, diameter 0.967 m, weight 1 210 kg. Fuel installation with a capacity of 2 780 liters.

The R-11 F2S-300 engine from the R-11 F-300 engine used in the MiG-21 PF differs essentially in the two bleeds used to supply air for the SPS installation, i.e. blowing air on the wing flaps.

SPRD-99 launch rockets.

Polish MiG-21 PFM fighters also had the opportunity to assist the launch with the help of two SPRD-99 rocket accelerators. Acceleration is twice as much as with a traditional start. The plane tears away from the runway after 8-10 seconds.

Rockets are mounted to special hooks placed on the fuselage. The first catch is a force catch. Main force is transmitted to him. The second hook stabilizes the accelerator fuselage, and after its work is unlocked and the accelerator falls off the plane under its own weight.

First, rockets are mounted to the fuselage without connecting the electrical connector. Then the pilot starts the aircraft engine. Checks aircraft systems and finally the accelerator control switches "ПУСК. УСКОР." and "СБОРС УСКОР.". Then the remote control gives the technician a sign to connect the electrical connector. After taxiing to the runway and obtaining permission to start, the pilot activates the above switches on the desktop. Lights ready for ignition are lit separately for left and right, "УСКОРИТ. ПРАВ." and "УСКОРИТ. ЛЕВ.". After the start of the run, the accelerators are started by pressing the "ПУСК УСКОРИТ." Button. This happens in a time interval of 2 to 5 seconds from the start of the take-off and depends on the armament set taken by the aircraft. Generally, accelerators are started at the latest when there is an additional fuel tank under the hull. Accelerators are used only when the aircraft engine afterburner is working. Accelerators can also be used on runways with unpaved surface. When they start to work, you feel a marked increase in tearing forward and a characteristic sound. The take-off lasted from 7 to 9 seconds, and at the time of the plane's detachment from the ground the speed is 340 - 350 km / h. That the accelerator was finished could easily be felt by the sudden drop in acceleration. The plane already had a speed of about 390 km / h. In the designated area, near the airport, with the "CБPOC УCKOP." accelerators are dropped. If the (above) lights go out, the accelerators have fallen off.

Emergency situations were very rare and the methodology was also defined. If both accelerators did not start, the pilot was to immediately stop the start and use all means to stop the machine on DS (RWY). When a decision is made to abort take-off, it disables rocket control.

When only one rocket worked. This manifested itself in a smaller increase in speed, less noise and a slight turning of the plane, corrected by pedals. Usually it was possible to continue the start, because it depended on the length of DS (RWY). The pilot then proceeds as at startup without these devices.

When the rockets were launched before the engine entered at maximum revs and before starting the afterburner. The pilot did not start. He used DS (RWY) to roll the aircraft over it to burn rocket fuel.

When the rockets did not fall off. The pilot made the return to the drop zone and tried again. If this was not an effect, he made another attempt to create an overload of more than 1g. If no effects were reported by KL (flight manager) and landed with accelerators not discarded, remembering to have about 200 liters of fuel less than during a normal landing.

MK-1 catapult chair.

The MK-1 throw chair consists of the following basic elements; skeleton, electromechanically adjustable height seat, backrest with a parachute placed inside, headrest, harness (binding system). The harness keeps the remote control in the seat during normal operation, but at the same time with the rescue parachute. Added to this are systems; cheese catapulting system, blasting mechanism, harness pulling system, emergency shoulder pull system, leg grip system, chair stabilization system for catapulting, zipper opening system. The harness pull system consists of a iliac and shoulder system. It works by shortening belts, but allows the pilot to lean forward about 23 cm. The emergency shoulder pull system is used to forcibly pull the pilot's shoulders to the back of the chair, release the hand spread limiters to the working position and retract the hand spread limiters to the starting position. The system's pyromechanism enters work when you pull the double catapulting handle. The leg grippers system is used to protect the pilot's legs from being scattered as a result of the impact of dynamic air pressure and inertial forces during catapulting. The shot mechanism is used to throw the chair out of the cabin to the necessary height during catapulting. The shot mechanism gives the chair a speed of 15 m / s, the other 15 m / s gives the chair a powder accelerator, which ensures that the pilot is thrown out of the cabin to a height of 45 m at instrument speeds of 140-600 km / h. The chair stabilization system is used to rotate the chair on the back after it enters the air stream, prevent the chair from turning, ensure stable descent of the chair together with the pilot after catapulting at high altitudes, inhibiting the flight speed of the chair after catapulting at high speed, and triggers a rescue parachute. The system consists of a parachute mechanism, first and second stabilizing parachute and automatic parachute. The system of opening the binding system locks is used to open the pilot locking locks in the chair at a certain height after a specified time, separating the double catapulting system, opening the leg catchers and releasing the parachute rescue system before it enters the air stream.

It should be noted that all activities were carried out automatically. However, the pilot had to know exactly what should happen at a given moment in order to manually perform a given stage sequence if necessary. It must be clearly said that after launching the rescue system, i.e. "snatching out" the catapulting handles, if the pilot lost consciousness, he would save himself.

Before launching the pilot, the flight manager (who is on the ground) gives instructions to help the pilot. If possible, the aircraft should take a ceiling of 3,000 m, i.e. when it is lower, it should increase the ceiling. Set a horizontal or slightly elevated flight. Instrument speed 400 - 600 km / h. The remote control is to turn on the "Danger" signal switch on the SRZO desktop. Clouds had to be avoided. Direct the aircraft towards land or its own territory. Now the pilot could press the "Explosion" button on the SRZO desktop. Closes the helmet by lowering the glass and sunscreen. Tightens the waist belt. He presses his body against the armchair and elbows against the torso. He grips the catapulting handle with both hands (with a grab), squeezes the locking levers and pulls strongly upwards without releasing the handle. If the cabin cover did not fall down, with the right hand on the starboard side the pilot grabs the emergency cover release lever and pulls towards him. The left hand is still resting on the catapulting handle. The guard drops and the pilot repeats pulling out of the catapulting handle without releasing it. If the cab cover fell and the catapulting was not the right-hand remote control on the left hand stop, it unlocks the blast mechanism and renews the catapult grip.

If the catapulting blasting mechanism did not work, it was possible after turning the cabin cover off, turning the plane to the back and suddenly giving away the stick. Centrifugal force will eject the pilot. The parachute then opens manually. However, it was necessary to remember to activate the KP-27 oxygen supply device and unlock the harness locks in an emergency.

Actions of the pilot after leaving the plane, i.e. launching. - If the lowering occurred above 3,000 m, the chair should fall down to this height. At this height or below, the remote unlocks the binding system (harness) locks with the lever located on the right side of the chair's bowl. These zippers will separate the remote control from the chair, but not from the parachute. Vigorously push yourself away from the chair and after about 3 seconds (so that the chair moves away) pulls the handle to open the parachute.

Now the pilot checks if the parachute has opened correctly. He moves the wrapping tape under his knees. He opens the helmet (glass and solar filter). Pulls the mask off of the face (unless it is over 4,000 m). At an altitude of 300-500 m, it pulls the rope on the right and releases NAZ. If it lands over the forest, it detaches the NAZ line carbine 20-15 meters before and releases it. Before the touchdown, it faces the wind. After a touchdown, he quickly leaves the parachute harness, especially in the mountains and in strong winds. Launches the R-855 emergency radio station.

When launching, the pilot has to perform several additional actions. - With his left hand he pulls out the KP-52M emergency disconnect pin to disconnect the parachute harness; oxygen mask, fast heating GSz and WUK. Disconnects from the top of the ORK wires: overload, ventilation, radio and heating fast GSz. He checks if the boat is full, if not it pulls the line up. Grabs the parachute's webbing with his left hand and opens the harness zip with his right hand. With your right hand, pull vigorously on the cylinder's trigger to fill its chambers. With both hands, he holds the parachute straps until he comes into contact with water. Upon contact with water, turning the body counterclockwise frees itself from the parachute harness. After launching. He turns his face in the direction of the wind (backs to the wave). Pull the NAZ cord and where the red tip is sewn to it, it breaks the "weakened" seam. It flows (pulls itself up) to the boat and enters it from the narrower side. Turns on the R-855 radio to send a rescue signal and uses NAZ equipment.

What is NAZ?

This is a survival kit that includes; boat (pontoon), emergency radio (starts after catapulting), pistol and cartridge magazine (only during W), signal pistol with light cartridges and flares and smoke candles, food (canned goods, chocolate, sugar cubes, candies, disinfectant) water), a mirror with a hole to aim for releasing 'bunnies', a knife, a compass, a first aid kit. Food was refilled only during W. Medicines in the medicine cabinet required cooperation between technicians and the medical service. It should be added that the radio, signal candle and knife were in the pilot's suit. There were also variants not used in Poland; sea (with fishing kit and desalination kit) desert variant (two containers with drinking water) winter variant (small skis).

Data T-T MiG-21 PFM:

Data T-T MiG-21 PFM. 2009 year. Work by Karol Placha Hetman
Data T-T MiG-21 PFM. 2009 year. Work by Karol Placha Hetman

Written by Karol Placha Hetman