Mikojan i Guriewicz MiG-19 1957. - History
153 Section 1957-12-03
OKB Mikojan i Guriewicz MiG-19 P, PM
The first supersonic fighter aircraft in Polish aviation, at the same time the first armed with guided missiles.
First, a few words about this aircraft.
MiG-19 was not a logical continuation of the MiG-15, MiG-17 fighter aircraft. He differed from almost everyone. Common features are only the frontal air grip and the slanted wings. Most importantly, because of the twin-engine propulsion system and size it belongs to heavy fighters, and predecessors to medium ones.
The MiG-19 was brought into service at the express instruction of the Kremlin. This happened because in the USAF began to introduce F-100 C fighters. An aircraft with supersonic speed and, what is important, capable of carrying nuclear weapons. The Kremlin's decision was to restore balance in its technique.
The office of OKB Mikojan and Guriewicz already had several structures capable of achieving supersonic speed, but there were problems with maintaining it constantly. The constructions I-340 (SM-1) and I-350 (M) should be mentioned here. The lack of a suitable turbojet engine stood in the way.
At this point, one should remember the very promising TR-1 engine, which had great hopes. However, the engine turned out to be completely unsuccessful, and this resulted in the collapse of several structures with the expected supersonic speed, e.g. Su-17.
On May 27, 1952. I-360 (SM-2) was flown. It was equipped with two A. Mikulin AM-5 engines with 2 x 1 962 kG thrust. Although the engines were equipped with axial compressors and were promising, their insufficient thrust did not provide flights at supersonic speeds. In addition, there were unpleasant surprises. For example, turbine blades were broken.
Fortunately, there was an improved engine marked AM-9 with 2 x 2,550 kG thrust. These engines enabled flights at supersonic speed. The I-360 (SM-2) aircraft performed 132 flights. G. Siedow piloted the machine in all flights.
And it was at this moment that the Kremlin made the decision to introduce this structure into service. There were structural deficiencies, but there was no way out. Other constructions in CCCP were even more delayed.
The direct model of the MiG-19 serial aircraft became the SM-9/1, which made its first flight on 5.01.1954. The construction had many shortcomings. First of all, in supersonic flight, the tail turned out to be ineffective. Work was started to introduce a plate type tail. Work on it lasted throughout 1954. Another drawback was the lack of sufficient stability. This problem was solved only with the MiG-19 S.
The test flights on SM-9/1 were performed by pilots K. Kokinaki, Georgia Maslov and nephew of the designer S. Mikojan. At the same time, work continued on improving the engine. Works were managed by S. Tumański, the successor of A. Mikulin. The engine received the production designation RD-9 and already had a 2 x 3 300 kG thrust. With afterburning.
Serial production MiG-19. 1954.
The production of the first version of the MiG-19 was very short. A small number of copies were built, rather for propaganda reasons, because the plane still had many shortcomings. In July 1955 the MiG-19 aircraft was shown at the parade in Tuszyno.
Shortly afterwards, serial production of the MiG-19 S (S - stabilizer) aircraft, originating from the SM-9/3 prototype, began. This design has already proved successful. Airplanes for various purposes come directly from it. It was created in 1956. high-altitude fighter MiG-19 SW (W - Wysotnyj). Reconnaissance aircraft MiG-19 R (R - razwiedczik) and a short series of MiG-19 SF aircraft reaching a speed of 1,560 km / h.
The second development line consisted of planes built on the basis of the SM-7 prototype equipped with SR RP-5, or more precisely the radar sight. Thanks to this, new interceptors were created. The SM-7/2 prototype turned into the MiG-19 P fighter (P - pieriechwatczik). Then the MiG-19 PF was built. A version of the MiG-19 PG with SR Gorizont-1 was also created, which was used to guide the aircraft to the target as indicated by the ground command point. A short series of MiG-19 PU (U - uskoritiel) aircraft with additional rocket accelerators was also built.
The SM-7/2 M prototype was equipped with a new SR marked RP-2 U (Izumrud-2) and armed with 4 CCP. RS-2 U (Q-5). The aircraft was produced serially under the designation MiG-19 PM (M - modified). The same aircraft with the "Łazur" telemetry device was designated MiG-19 PMŁ.
OKB Mikojan and Guriewicz also continued to develop the SM experimental aircraft line, which aimed to build a new fighter jet. Let us; SM-10 - air refueling, SM-12 - new air catches, SM-30 - zero start, SM-50 - additional rocket engine.
MiG-19 for service.
MiG-19 found the armament of the Warsaw Pact countries; USSR, Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, East Germany, Poland, Romania and Hungary as well as to China, Egypt, Indonesia, Iraq, Pakistan, Syria and Cuba. Its production was undertaken in Czechoslovakia, but only the MiG-19 S version, i.e. without SR, under the designation S-105. China also started production. Not only license planes were produced there, but also their own versions were developed.
MiG-19 for Poland.
Why did Poland buy the MiG-19?
By the mid-1950s, it was already clear that the era of supersonic fighters was approaching irreversibly. We already had very good Lim-5 fighters equipped with SR but they were not able to scare reconnaissance reconnaissance aircraft of NATO countries in the form of U-2, Canberra PR and Atlantic machines quickly enough. These aircraft systematically violated our territory, mainly sea. Therefore, a supersonic fighter capable of day and night operations would be a good solution.
The first attempts to purchase supersonic aircraft by the Polish authorities were made in the second half of the 1950s. In July 1956 and in January 1957. preliminary documents were signed providing for the license production of the MiG-19 fighter aircraft under the designation Lim-7. However, the socio-political crisis in May 1957. in Poland caused an increase in distrust of leaders in Moscow. Already during the initial talks in the Kremlin on May 24-25, 1957. Khrushchev said that CCCP will under no circumstances transfer Poland the license rights for the production of MiG-19. We only obtained permission to purchase 33 MiG-19 machines in two versions; MiG-19 P with radar sight and cannons and MiG-19 PM with radar sight and RS-2 US missiles. The planes were to create three pursuit squadrons in the north - in Słupsk, in the west - Poznań Krzesiny, in the south - Mierzęcice.
As for the exact number of machines, there are discrepancies. The most likely number is 33 pieces. The number 36 appears because of so-called full-time occupancy.
MiG-19 deliveries to Poland.
Airplanes in the MiG-19 P version were imported in two deliveries. On December 3, 1957 Nine brand new machines came to Poland. On May 17, 1958. another 10 pieces. There were 14 aircraft in the MiG-19 PM version and they were delivered at the turn of 1958/1959.
Pilots were selected as the first to be trained for the new aircraft; Capt. Czesław Kantyka and Capt. Zdzisław Mickiewicz. These pilots were trained in CCCP. They were probably our only pilots trained in CCCP. Others were trained in Poland. The need to conduct training in Poland has already been seen. Modlin was chosen as the training place.
The new aircraft were initially at the airport in Modlin, where the School of Pilots was formed. Pilot training in WSP for new equipment began in May 1958. The first system training of a group of 9 pilots was conducted by Capt. Czesław Kantyka.
At the beginning of 1959 planes formed interceptors (pursuit) and reached operational readiness. Intercepting squadrons were created from the supplied aircraft, one in 28. PLM at the Słupsk-Rędzikowo airport, 62. PLM based at the Poznań-Krzesiny airport and 39. PLM at the Mierzęcice airport.
MiG-19 versions used in Poland.
MiG-19 P (aka aircraft 62) - the machine is equipped with RP-5, bi-antenna radar stations. Above the inlet, a search antenna, a tracking antenna in the bulkhead. The fuselage in relation to the MiG-19 S was extended by 0.9 m. The radar station forced a change of armament. For the sake of weight, the gun was removed from the hull. Two 30 mm NR-30 cannons were left. In addition, 2 storage tanks from above were suspended.
MiG-19 PM (modified. Otherwise aircraft 65) - this is an aircraft armed exclusively with 4 K-5 missiles (RS-2US). RP-5 radar station was replaced with RP-2U (Izmrud-2), adapted to fire these missiles.
In the literature you can find information that, in addition to machines equipped with SR, MiG-19 S also came to Poland. They were used mainly for training pilots in flights on this type of fighter. However, you cannot find any photos of this version in Polish colors. There were only drawings. Also, none of the pilots confirms this information. Therefore, information about the possession of the MiG-19 S version by Poland is unlikely, but not impossible. Two facts support this. First of all, during the first negotiations with the Russian side, we could have just proposed MiG-19 S planes, which is very likely, although this version did not satisfy us. Secondly, the MiG-19 S under the designation S-105 was produced by our neighbors, i.e. in Czechoslovakia. It is not unrealistic that several pieces in the second half of the 1960s could have come to Poland.
Written by Karol Placha Hetman