247b Section 22.12.1976r.
Iliuszyn Ił-86, Ił-96.
To be continued.
Ił-96, the long-range version.
Already on June 26, 1972, information was announced about the commencement of work on the long-range version of the Il-86. The aircraft was designated Il-86 D (дальний). In fact, it was an order from the Kremlin. The preliminary design was completed in June 1976. It was estimated that for the proposed range of 8,500 km, the plane should have a slightly larger wingspan. The Lotariev D-18 engines, which we wrote about in the previous Chapter, were recommended for the aircraft. The lack of these engines effectively inhibited the work on the plane.
During the research and development works, the Il-86 D underwent gradual transformations. Despite its external similarity, it has become a new construction. Therefore, its designation was changed to Il-96. The first and basic version was the Il-96-300 variety. The design of the Il-96 aircraft was based on a different philosophy. Since the plane was supposed to be a long distance flight, it would fly abroad. There, the luggage system with you will not work. So there is no point in installing shelves for suitcases on the lower deck. Baggage must be checked in at the airport. If so, there is no need for gangways to the lower deck. Passengers will usually board the plane through the sleeves of the terminals. Removing the gangplanks will reduce the weight of the machine in favor of a greater fuel reserve. The corridors on the lower deck have also been eliminated, so there is room for additional freight.
Passenger cabins turned out to be another matter. However, there was only class in Il-86. Additionally, the flight did not last longer than three or four hours. At least two classes had to be designed for the IL-96. Three different classes with different standards have been developed.
Work on the prototype started faster when the office had a suitable engine at its disposal. The Soloviev PS-90 A engines (designer Paweł Sołowiow) became the propulsion of the new Ił-96 aircraft. Work on the engine continued from the late 70's. It was then designated as D-90 AN (D, digit). Only in 1988. the engine obtained a conditional certificate and could be mounted on the plane, but not allowed for flights with passengers. The engine obtained the proper certificate in 1992. Soloviev PS-90 A engines are one of the greatest achievements of the Soviet industry of the 80's, although it still did not match the designs from the USA and UK. The engine became the propulsion of the Il-96, Tu-204 and Tu-214 aircraft.
The Ił-96 power unit consists of four Soloviev PS-90 A engines with a thrust of 4 x 156.6 kN. The capacity of the fuel tanks is 152,620 liters.
The first flight of the Il-96-300 was made on August 30, 1988, i.e. 12 years after the flight of the Il-86. The crew captain was S. Blizniuk. The Il-96-300 aircraft has a 9.60 m wider span, it is 4.20 m shorter, 1.76 m higher, the wing area is 30 square meters larger, and it also has a smaller slant by 5 degrees. The plane carries 2,000 kg less payload, has a maximum take-off weight of 10,000 kg, and the same landing mass. The hull cross-section is identical. The chassis also remained. There are two versions of the aircraft; for 300 and 235 passengers. Hence these markings.
The Ił-96-300 wing has a bevel of 30 degrees. It has rich mechanization, a supercritical profile and winglets at the ends. The wings have a rich mechanization with external and internal ailerons. Internal double-slot flaps, external single-slot flaps. There are spoilers and gills. The hull has a total capacity of 950 cubic meters. There are 350 cubic meters for the passenger cabin. The rest is the lower deck, crew cabin, toilets, galleys. The crew remained three (two pilots and an on-board technician). However, the crews still fly with the fourth crew member, the navigator.
New plastics were used in the construction. The structures are planned to last 60,000 hours or 12,000 landings. The aircraft has a range of 7,500 km with a payload of 40,000 kg, 9,000 km with a payload of 30,000 kg, 11,000 km with a payload of 15,000 kg. In 2005, the price of the Il-96 aircraft was $ 60-75 million. By comparison, the A 330 cost $ 150-180 million, and the Boeing 777 cost $ 190-250 million.
Just after the start of the flight tests, G. Nowożyow said that "the Il-96 technically corresponds to the aircraft that will be prepared for production only in the 90's". "Ił-96 solutions look far into the future." How did professor G. Nowożyow know what kind of planes will be constructed in a few years? Unless he was a clairvoyant. The constructors claimed that the airlines were waiting for this plane and that it was very much needed. It was so necessary that by 2007 (i.e. for 20 years) only 28 units were built.
Il-96 and the case of Poland.
Although the economy of the Comecon countries was on the verge of collapse, the rulers of the Kremlin and Warsaw were hoping that these were only temporary problems. Therefore, already in 1986, there was talk of further participation of the Polish Aviation Industry in the creation of the Il-96 aircraft. The first Ił-96-300 aircraft received a horizontal tail manufactured by PZL Mielec. The vertical one could not be installed because it was taller and larger.
Joint plans were still very ambitious. Attempts were made to involve all the countries belonging to Comecon and Yugoslavia in the construction of the Il-96-300.
The Polish Aviation Industry at that time (1986) was heavily involved in the final production of complete An-28 transport aircraft. We produced a whole range of agricultural planes (Kruk, Dromader in various variants). The production of helicopters (Mi-2 and Sokół) continued. We continued to build components for the Aerobus Ił-86.
The Russian industry was in the process of implementing two more civil aircraft programs; Il-114 and Tu-204. PZL has already signed preliminary contracts with the Iliuszyna office for the production of chassis and propellers for the Ił-114 aircraft in Poland. (At that time it was not yet established whether the propellers would be metal or composite). We did not participate in the Tu-204 program due to the lack of production capacity. Importantly, we did not need significant investment outlays to undertake new tasks.
The Russians still hoped that LOT Polish Airlines would introduce into equipment, if not the Ił-86 aircraft, then the newer Il-96. However, this did not happen. The reason was another disaster of the Il-62 M belonging to LOT Polish Airlines on May 9, 1987. Thanks to the determination of some PLL LOT management, we took the right direction, with Boeing planes.
Socio-economic transformations in the Republic of Poland in 1989, and then the break-up of the CCCP, led to the breakdown of international cooperation with Russian airplanes. Unfortunately, as a result, PZL fell into great difficulties.
The Il-86 is the first Russian wide-body aircraft. Built in a classic low wing configuration. Four motors were used for the propulsion, which were suspended on outriggers under the wings. Metal construction with little use of plastics. Duralumin, steel, and titanium were used.
Oblique wing. Technologically divided into 3 parts. The middle wing is a center wing integrally connected to the middle part of the fuselage, and the 7 m long trapezoidal wing section. Attached to them are the outer parts of the wings, to which the booms for suspending the engines are mounted. The profile at the fuselage has a relative thickness of 17.5 degrees. The angle of attack of the wings is 35 degrees. They have a positive lift; 4 steps at the fuselage, 3 steps for exterior parts. The wings are equipped with a rich mechanization. There are gills on the leading edge. The wing flaps occupy about 70 percent of the span. They are divided into double-slot fuselage flaps and single-slot external ones. The flaps swing a maximum of 40 degrees. Ailerons are mounted at the ends, covering about 20 percent of the span. On the upper surface there is a set of spoilers (spoilers) that can be tilted upwards. They support the ailerons and act as aerodynamic brakes.
The fuselage is circular in cross-section. The maximum diameter is 6.08 m. The hull is double-decker. The upper deck is the main deck. Here they are; crew cabin, three passenger cabins, toilets (8), two wardrobes and two sideboards. The upper deck has 8 emergency exits, but not all have inflatable slides. The lower deck is made of two parts; front and rear. They are separated by a center wing. In the front there is a kitchen from which meals are delivered to the upper deck by means of elevators. Access to the lower deck is provided by three gangways equipped with their own stairs, located on the left side. On the starboard side there are two doors through which containers with freight and luggage are put.
The standard arrangement of seats is 3x3x3. The seats in the middle package are shifted by half their length, thanks to which passengers, while standing up, enter the overlap aisle at the same time.
The passage in the Il-86 aircraft is 0.55 m wide. The Soviets boasted that these were the widest passages in wide-body aircraft. They are 0.07 m wider than their competitors. Passengers and a flight attendant with a pram easily passed in the aisle.
The passenger compartment is equipped with four (two on each side) emergency exits equipped with inflatable slides. The designers informed that 350 people will leave the plane in 90 seconds in an emergency, using the exits only on one side. Observing the trials conducted by Western aviation companies, we claim that it was a lie, and such trials were not actually carried out on the Il-86 aircraft.
Classic tail with division into ballasts and rudders. The horizontal has an area of 96.5 square meters and a span of 20.57 meters. The vertical section has an area of 56.06 square meters.
Classic chassis with an additional middle leg and a trolley. The three main landing gear legs are fitted with identical four-wheeled bogies. All wheels of the main landing gear are braked with multiple disc brakes. Front chassis with two steered wheels. Wheel track 11.15 m, chassis base 21.34 m.
The equipment of the aircraft is on a par with that of the Il-62 aircraft. The plane was equipped with a weather radar. Only in 1990, the aircraft used the navigation system Pижма-1. Four-circuit hydraulic system. Electrical installation. Electricity is generated by 4 GT-40PCh6 generators mounted on the engines and by an APU generator. Additionally, the plane has batteries. The main power installation is 200/115 V, 400 Hz. Additional 36V / 400Hz AC and 27V.
NK-86 with a thrust of 4 x 127.5 kN. The NK-86 is a two-flow engine, but not a turbo-fan engine. Consists of 5-stage low pressure, 6-stage high pressure, ring-pitcher combustion chamber, 1-stage high pressure turbine, 2-stage low pressure turbine, cascade reversing thrust. The starter is pneumatic. The thrust reverser deflects the jet only 105 degrees from normal, which is only 15 degrees of reverse thrust. The aircraft is equipped with an additional APU type VSU-10 turbo generator.
The wings have been completely rebuilt. They received a smaller bevel, which is 30 degrees. It has also been lengthened. Wing extension 9.5. The span increased by 9.60 m. The area increased by 30 square meters. The profile has been changed to supercritical, which has more lift and a larger interior space, thanks to which it takes up more fuel. The mechanization of the wings has been modified. Among other things, internal ailerons were used. Winglets are mounted at the ends of the wings. First time on a Russian plane.
The fuselage was also rebuilt. It was shortened by 4.20 m. The main goal was to reduce the size of the cabin and reduce the weight of the structure. (There would be 350 passengers on international flights.). Entrance ladders and internal stairs were abandoned. Passengers immediately board the main deck, just like in a classic plane. The lower deck is just a hold. Passengers check in their luggage during check-in. The hull was equipped with 6 entrance doors, three on each side. Passenger cabins are of three class sizes.
The landing gear of the Il-96 aircraft is almost identical to that of the Il-86 aircraft. The main landing gear is 10.40 m.
The Ił-96 aircraft has a more modern cabin than its predecessor. 5 screens appeared in the cabin.
Data T-T Ił-86, Ił-96:
Tally of Il-86, Il-96.
In Poland, the Ił-86 and Ił-96 aircraft were not operated. The Polish Aviation Industry participated in their production.
Written by Karol Placha Hetman