Iliuszyn Ił-14. 1955.Last change: May 2020
125b Section 1955-06-01
Transport plane. Successor to the Il-12 aircraft.
History Iliuszyn Ił-14.
Deficiencies in the Il-12 aircraft forced the necessity of further modification works. The changes were so big that a new plane was created. It was designated Il-14. The new aircraft after its predecessor inherited the fuselage structure, horizontal tail and landing gear. The wings were completely rebuilt. Higher power engines were used. The designers had at their disposal the ASz-82 T engine, with 2 x 1,398 kW start power (2 x 1 900 HP). These engines not only had more power than the previous variety, but were also more fuel-efficient.
Much attention was paid to increasing security, especially in complex situations. Belongs to them; fire on board. Interruption of one engine during start. Landing in conditions of limited earth visibility. Flight in conditions of strong icing. Much of this was achieved by introducing new avionics. Landing equipment in difficult weather conditions and new radio equipment for ground communication were built.
The Il-14 prototype made its first flight on September 20, 1950, and Vladimir K. Kokkinaki was the first pilot. The obtained test results were so encouraging that it was decided to build a full passenger version. The version received the designation Il-14 P, and in 1953, the aircraft made its first flight. The aircraft received a passenger cabin equipped with 18 seats. The total weight was 16 513 kg.
The production of Il-14 aircraft was started in Moscow by the "Znamia Truda" plant in 1954, replacing Il-12 aircraft on the production line. The aircraft was introduced to Aeroflot in November 1954. The first cruises allowed to gather comments and conclusions that led to the development of the IL-14 M version (modified - modernized). The hull was extended by 1 meter, which allowed 24 seats to be placed. Based on the same hull, a version with 32 seats was built, designated Il-14 M 32. These additional seats were installed thanks to the liquidation of the auxiliary (luggage) room and the reduction of the distance between rows.
There was also the Ił-14 T version, i.e. the transport version, without seats, with a reinforced floor and a large loading door on the port side. The Il-14 D version is the landing version for skydivers, with benches at the hull sides. The Il-14 F version is a photogrammetric version built in small numbers.
Production of Il-14 was completed at CCCP in 1958. Il-14 aircraft were also manufactured under license in East Germany and Czechoslovakia. The GDR industry started aircraft production in 1956 at the VEB Flugzeugewerke Dresden plant, under the designation VEB Ił-14. About 80 machines were built in the GDR, in various versions and versions. In Czechoslovakia, production started Avia Georgi Dimitrov. The aircraft were designated Av-14. The first copies were closely modeled on the Il-14 P and had 18 seats in the passenger cabin. The next version was Av-14-24, corresponding to the Soviet Il-14 M. In 1957, the Av-14-32 variant for 32 passengers was built, and in 1959, the Av-14-40 variant for 40 passengers, designed for short routes national. Versions were also created in Czechoslovakia; Av-14 T transport, with loading doors of 2.75 mx 1.60 m, Av-14 P for parachute landing. Airplanes were built in single copies; aerophotography and salons for important personalities (VIP). The production of Av-14 was completed in 1960, after the construction of over 200 machines.
According to the licensing laws, the planes built in East Germany and Czechoslovakia were to be identical to the smallest detail. However, these countries made many successful changes, and what is important, their machines were more carefully made.
Ił-14 aircraft, mainly in transport version, were used in the Warsaw Pact countries (Poland, USSR, Czechoslovakia, East Germany, Bulgaria, Romania, Hungary) and in Yugoslavia, China, Egypt, India, Indonesia, Congo, Nepal, Syria, Korea North, Myanmar, Albania, Mongolia, South Yemen, Ghana, Guinea, Iraq, Mali and Cuba.
In total, in the years 1954–1960, about 3,500 copies of all versions and varieties of the Il-14 aircraft were built. The aircraft enjoyed a good reputation. They were easy to fly, safe and economical for those times.
Il-14 in Poland. June 1955.
LOT Polish Airlines purchased in CCCP, in 1955, four Ił-14 P aircraft, and in 1956, another two. In 1957, six VEB Ił-14 P machines and one passenger-transport Av-14 from Czechoslovakia were imported, with large loading doors. CCCP aircraft have been designated SP-LNA, SP-LNB, SP-LNC, SP-LND, SP-LNE, SP-LAF. Planes from the GDR were marked with the SP-LNG, SP-LNH, SP-LNJ, SP-LNK, SP-LNL, SP-LNM registrations. The aircraft from Czechoslovakia AV-14 received registration SP-LNN. In addition, in the years 1963–1964, PLL LOT rented three VEB Ił-14 P aircraft. They had different serial numbers, but they received registration SP-LNO, SP-LNP, SP-LNR. In total, LOT Polish Airlines operated 13 Ił-14 machines.
During operation at LOT, aircraft were subject to numerous modernizations. The number of passenger seats was increased from 18 to 26, and then 32. Dorsal astro domes were removed in Il-14 P. VEB Il-14 P aircraft did not have them at all. The wing (!) Was strengthened and an eighth window was added in the front of the passenger compartment as well as other minor changes.
In 1967, a decision was made to adapt two Ił-14 P aircraft to aerophotogrammetry tasks to replace the depleted Li-2 F. Two Soviet production SP-LNB and SP-LNE were rebuilt. The first of them was put into use in March 1968, and the second a few weeks later. Workshops overhauling PLL LOT aircraft were made. On the left side of the aircraft mounted a semicircular dome of organic glass in place of the radiotelegraph's cabin window, for the room of the navigation sight, used to track the photographed area. Most of the seats have been removed from the passenger compartment. Photographic equipment was installed. In the floor and at the bottom of the cab holes for the lens have been cut out. The lower opening is covered by a cover located outside the hull. The aircraft crew consists of; 2 pilots, radio operator, navigator, 2-4 operators of photographic equipment. These aircraft also inherited the painting pattern from Li-2 F. The aircraft were owned by the Polish Photogrammetry Enterprise, for which LOT Polish Airlines provided technical service and flying personnel. Later they were forwarded to Przedsiębiorstwo Lotnicze Aviation, which in their tasks received the aerophotogram department. Then, photogrammetric planes in Poland were the property of the Board of Air Traffic and Communications Airports.
Ił-14 passenger aircraft completed regular flights at LOT Polish Airlines in 1972, performing charter flights until 1974, giving way to the turboprop An-24 W and Ił-18.
Il-14 M SP-LNG registration.
One aircraft Il-14 M registration SP-LNG, at the beginning of the 70s, was equipped with a special measuring apparatus for testing the structure of the electromagnetic field and analyzing the spectrum of signals emitted by air sources. The design and equipment of the Ił-14 measuring version was developed at the request of the Ministry of Communication at the Institute of Aviation. In the 80's these machine was at the disposal of the Air Traffic Board and served as a universal flying electronic measuring laboratory. The equipment on board was classified as a unique technical solution.
On August 22, 1974, the Il-14 SP-LNB aircraft was sold to Przedsiębiorstwo Usług Lotniczych. Measuring apparatus has been mounted on it, which we write about below. In new tasks, the aircraft replaced the worn-out Lisunow Li-2 aircraft registration SP-LKE "Ewa". This enterprise underwent further transformations, becoming the Board of Air Traffic and Communications Airports, and then (80s) by the State Enterprise Porty Lotnicze.
The purpose of the existence of this aircraft with the equipment mounted on it was to ensure safety in civil traffic along the corridors above Poland. Each passenger aircraft has systems that process VOR beacons and a receiver with a cross indicator at the output. According to this indicator, the pilot is aware of the position of the aircraft in the corridor and corrects it. Measuring equipment was on board the SP-LNB aircraft, and the map of Poland with air corridors was laid out all the time on the table. The aircraft cooperated with non-directional VOR beacons deployed throughout the country and landing devices based on ILS type instruments installed at airports. The heart of the system on the plane was a computer that analyzed ground signals. The floppy disks, which are computer memory media, contained data for each controlled device. Current signals from the given device were saved on clean floppy disks. The computer performs a comparative analysis of the received signal with the pattern, including floppy disks. Thanks to this, it was known whether the device was working properly. Measurements are displayed on a small screen in the form of graphs. These charts were then printed. All this took place on board the aircraft. Flights to test ILS equipment were much more difficult for the crew. The pilot had to stay perfectly on the glide path. At Okęcie, to make one full measurement, it was necessary to spend 35 hours in the air, while where the terrain is difficult to level, for example in Balice, a total of 100 hours had to be in the air. The manufacturer of this equipment was the American company Aviation Systems Incorporation.
In the 80's, Porty Lotnicze company had two Il-14 aircraft, but only one of them was fitted with the equipment mentioned above. Specifically on SP-LNB. The aircraft flew only over Polish territory, including territorial waters. For example, in the Darłowo region, the plane flew over the sea over a distance of 40 km. In order for the measurements to be as good as possible, the right weather had to be maintained, the cloud base 900 m, visibility 10,000 m, which is why the most outlets were in summer.
In 1990, the Il-14 SP-LNB registration terminated service, and specialized equipment was transferred to the Turbolet L-410 aircraft. SP-LNB and SP-LNE aircraft as wrecks survived their days at Okęcie (2005).
Il-14 in the Polish Army. 1955.
Polish Military Aviation, the first IL-14 machines received in 1955, and they were planes available, as a showroom. They wore nb 001, 004, 010 and others as well as transport and landing with nb 005, 006 and others. It should be noted that several IL-14 aircraft from PLL LOT were on military aviation services. For example, these aircraft were used to transport fruit.
In addition to Soviet aircraft, the army had machines built in East Germany type VEB Il-14 T. These aircraft were mainly used for taking skydivers, aerophotogrammetry and for transporting cargo. Machines used in the army had slightly changed radio navigation equipment. This was visible after using a different type of antenna on the hull back. Military planes also have a semi-circular dome in place of the radiotelegraphist's cabin window for locating the target sight. The cargo door is located on the starboard side, in the rear of the hull. It opens only on the ground in an upward motion, just like on a Lisunow Li-2 plane. The doors have smaller doors that are used by skydivers. They open inside.
In 1961, attempts were made on the Il-14 aircraft to drop suspended containers for bomb locks and dropped on parachutes. These machines had beams with bomb locks mounted under the middle wing-fuselage. A mirror was placed on the engine nacelle to observe the moment of dropping.
The jumpers of the 6th Pomeranian Airborne Division used the Il-14 T aircraft. Both during training and during rescue operations. This type of machine was dropped in July 1958 during a campaign to help people affected by floods. In October 1962, during the exercises of the Warsaw Pact state, airborne operations were carried out in Western Pomerania with these aircraft. Similarly, in 1966, in the Ustka region, during naval exercises. IL-14 planes performed their tasks back in the 70's, although they gradually gave way to turboprop-powered aircraft.
College of Aviation in Dęblin used Ił-14 T aircraft to train navigators. The future navigator was trained in the cockpit and only one. In 1975, a team of WOSL rationalizers modified one IL-14 T aircraft for this purpose. Its hold has been rebuilt into a flying lecture hall, allowing the simultaneous training of 6 navigators, at tables with appropriate radio navigation equipment. In addition, it was possible to conduct training in horizontal bombardment and to recognize the effects of bombing. Previously Lisunow Li-2 aircraft were used for this purpose.
In the 1960s, one copy of the Il-14 E was introduced to the armament. The aircraft was equipped with specialized electronic reconnaissance equipment. Probably all the equipment was installed in Poland and is an original Polish solution. It would also mean that even our then allies were not very aware of its existence. Except for checker boards arranged by plane, there were no inscriptions. His crew consisted of 10 pilots. He performed flights mainly on the Baltic Sea. The plane was one of the closely guarded military secrets. To this day (2008) the equipment of the aircraft is not widely known.
There were a total of 17 IL-14 machines in the state of military aviation. They served exceptionally long. Generally, by the end of the 1980s. But the last Il-14 was written off in 1997.
Ił-14 P - basic passenger version. Produced since 1950, in CCCP and GDR. The aircraft had 18 passenger seats. The number of passenger seats was increased to 28 and 32. Production ended in 1957.
Ił-14 M - version of the Ił-14 P with the hull extended by 1 m. Developed in 1955. Passenger variety for 24 people, then 28 people and 32 people. The plane had slightly worse performance than the version from which it was made.
Il-14 G - transport, but civil version. Derived from the Il-14 M version, but has the hull of the Il-14 P version, it carries 3,500 kg of cargo. A small series of these aircraft was built by converting existing machines. The aircraft were mainly used to service science and research stations in the polar regions.
Ił-14 T - transport and military version. The aircraft was developed in 1952, based on the Il-14 M version, but with the hull of the Il-14 P version. Normally, 21 paratroopers or 18 wounded or 2,700 kg of cargo were taken on board. The aircraft could tow two gliders with a total weight of up to 7,000 kg.
Il-14 D - landing version. The aircraft was developed in 1953 for airborne troops. He takes 30 paratroopers or 3 000 kg of cargo on board.
Avia AV-14 - Il-14 P aircraft built in Czechoslovakia.
Avia 14 Super - passenger for 42 passengers produced in Czechoslovakia.
Il-14 FG - photogrammetric version built on the basis of Il-14 G with extended glass nose.
Ił-14 FK - photogrammetric version built on the basis of Ił-14 P.
Ił-14 FKM - photogrammetric version built on the basis of Ił-14 M.
Ił-14 S - version of the lounge for important people (VIP) with 9-11 seats. Built on the basis of Il-14 P.
Il-14 E - electronic recognition version.
Written by Karol Placha Hetman