Iliuszyn Ił-12. 1949. - History
075b Section 1949-09-04
Transport plane. Successor of Li-2.
One of the few photos of IL-12 military aircraft in Poland. Il-12 aircraft can be easily distinguished from Il-14 by the vertical tail shape.
During the war (World War II), a team of designers led by Sergei Vladimirowicz Iliuszyn began to develop a new class Li-2 transport aircraft. Naturally, it had to be a more modern construction. Attention was paid to improving flight safety and the possibility of operation in various climatic conditions at the CCCP. Even the temperature; minimum -67 degrees C in Yakutsk, maximum +60 degrees C in Tashkent. The basic change in Il-12, compared to Li-2, was the introduction of a three-support chassis with a front wheel. This arrangement means that the taxiing plane has a horizontal position, which greatly improves visibility from the cockpit during maneuvers at the airport.
A new four-blade propeller was used. The propeller is adjustable, i.e. the angle of attack can be changed. This change can result in placing the propellers in a flag. This has the advantage that at the time of failure of one of the engines, its propeller does not put much resistance. On one working engine, not only horizontal flight is possible, but slight climb up to 1000 m above sea level.
Work on the plane began in the autumn of 1943, but continued with breaks, due to more urgent other work and the ongoing war. There was even the possibility of completely discontinuing work on the aircraft. Stalin agreed to continue work, provided that the aircraft was also adapted to the needs of the army. The plane, in addition to transporting passengers and goods, was to be able to perform a parachute landing and towing transport gliders. Since most of the tasks were to be carried out at a low ceiling, as well as for reasons of a small budget, the hermetic crew and passengers cabin was abandoned.
The first prototype was flown on August 15, 1945. However, it turned out that the ACz-31 engines used were extremely emergency. To save the situation, it was decided to use ASz-82 engines, not very modern, but proven in many designs of combat aircraft.
In December 1945, a prototype with ASz-82 engines was completed, designed for flight tests. On January 9, 1946, the prototype made its first flight. They were at the controls; Vladimir K. Kokkinaki (known aviation record holder) and his brother Konstanty K. Kokkinaki. After completing the factory tests, the aircraft successfully passed the state tests and received permission to put it into service in Aeroflot. At that time, it was given the designation Il-12. Also in 1946, serial production began in Moscow, in the only of the oldest aircraft factories "Znamia Truda", where, among others, IL-2 and IL-10 assault planes were built.
On May 1, 1947, several aircraft were demonstrated in flight during the Moscow parade. The aircraft was not well developed and required many modifications during its initial operation. As a result, an anti-icing system for wings, tail, windscreen and propeller blades was built. The leading edges of the wings are de-iced with hot air heated in an oil cooler. The leading edges of the tail are also de-iced with hot air. This air is taken in by grips on both sides of the hull near the horizontal tail, heated by electric heaters and directed to the leading edges. The front windows in the crew cabin, so that they do not freeze, received a spirit shower installation. Propeller blades are also de-iced with spirit distributed in small doses through the grooves along the leading edge of the blades. De-icing means washing the propeller blades, just like the crew cab windows.
The aircraft received effective pilot and passenger cabin heating. At an outdoor temperature of –50 degrees Celsius, a constant temperature of +25 degrees C can be maintained in the cabin.
In 1949, serial production of the modernized version of Il-12 B began, which in addition to the changes listed above, received a number of others. This version has an inflow (dorsal fin) before the vertical tail. The engine covers were changed because the aircraft received modernized engines. The exhaust pipes are also different. To improve the structural safety, the total weight from 17,250 kg to 16,100 kg. This was achieved mainly by reducing fuel supply.
The Il-12 B version was included in the equipment of Aeroflot and the company Aviaarktika, which used these planes to connect with science bases in the Arctic and Antarctica.
The Ił-12 B version is included in the equipment of LOT Polish Airlines and Czechoslovakian CSA. A little later Romania, Bulgaria and China adopted the plane. Despite many shortcomings, the plane was correct to fly, easy to take off and land. Thanks to the high power of the drive unit, it was possible to use it safely at high-altitude airports, both with concrete (asphalt) and soil (grass) surfaces. The full load run on grass is less than 500 m and reach is 700 m. However, it was the power unit that caused the most problems. Failures occurred quite often, and fuel consumption in relation to newer designs was too high.
For the army, the production of airborne landing and cargo transport versions up to 3,000 kg and towing transport gliders such as; Yak-14, KC-20. Airplanes of this version received on the left side of the fuselage a large loading door, opened on the ground. A movable turret for a shooter serving km SZKAS or UBT was placed on the hull crest. On the left side of the fuselage, just behind the cockpit, a protruding transparent dome was placed. There was a crosshair for the landing drop. The plane takes 37 skydivers or 26 fully equipped soldiers, possibly 16 wounded on stretchers, plus 6 sitting.
A typical transport version was also created, designated Il-12 T. It only had a cargo hold (no seating position), which holds 3,500 kg, and often 4,000 kg of cargo was taken away in normal operation.
In general, Il-12 turned out to be a structure with numerous shortcomings. Only his successor Ił-14 became a mature structure and operated for many years, also in Poland. Production of Il-12 lasted from 1946–1950, and closed with about 3,000 machines of all versions, for the army and civil aviation, for CCCP and for export.
On October 24, 1958, the Il-12 aircraft was the first Soviet aircraft to fly over the South Pole.
Ił-12 for Poland.
The Il-12 aircraft was exported via the Aviaxport Foreign Trade Center. The headquarters showed this aircraft as well as the Jak-16 and Jak-18 in Poznan at the Ławica airport on April 24, 1948 - May 9, 1948. as part of the 21st MTP (Poznań International Fair). The Il-12 copy was designated CCCP-L1701 and belonged to an early production series. Clarifications and answers to journalists' questions were given by the pilot Konstanty K. Kokkinaki, who also presented the plane in flight with passengers on board.
Ił-12 in the PLL LOT.
In 1949, LOT Polish Airlines purchased 5 Il-12 B passenger aircraft, which received registration marks; SP-LHA, SP-LHB, SP-LHC, SP-LHD, SP-LHE. The new aircraft was first publicly demonstrated at Okęcie on 4 September 1949 on the occasion of the Aviation Day. The aircraft was also shown in the air demonstrating a flight with a climb on one working engine, with the other turned off, whose blades were set into a flag.
The Ił-12 B aircraft in LOT Polish Airlines had 18 or 21 passenger seats. Their number during operation was increased to 28 units.
In 1952, another Il-12 B loan was borrowed for several months and received registration SP-LHF. At PLL LOT, the aircraft were used until the end of 1957, and the last three machines, with registrations SP-LHA, SP-LHB, SP-LHC, were left in the reserve until November 1959.
Ił-12 for the Polish Army.
In 1950, two aircraft were purchased, one Il-12 B nb 002 for the transport of important personalities, possibly cargo and one Il-12 D nb 001.
On November 6, 1959, the army took over (rented) three IL-12 B aircraft (probably SP-LHA, SP-LHB, SP-LHC) from PLL LOT, adapting them to transport and parachute landing.
The last copies were deleted in the 1960s. The Il-12 D nb 001 aircraft terminated flights in 1966, while the Il-12 B nb 002 aircraft terminated in 1969.
Il-12 A - the first serial version. Takes 27 passengers.
Il-12 B - passenger version developed in 1949, externally received the inflow (aerodynamic steering wheel) before the vertical tail. Asz-82 FN-212 engines with 2 x 1 630 HP. The plane takes 27 passengers, and on shorter routes up to 32 passengers. A salon for 11 passengers, with a range of 4,000 km and a sanitary version, was created.
Il-12 D - version for the army built in 1948-1949, the plane takes 37 jumpers or 26 soldiers. It can tow 1 or 2 transport gliders.
Il-12 T - is a typical commodity version. It has a reinforced floor and a deck crane, with a lifting capacity of 1 500 kg. Built in 1949.
Written by Karol Placha Hetman