Iliuszyn Ił-12. 1949. - Construction

Category: Airplanes Last change: May 2020 History Construction Tally

Kraków 2008-10-16

075b Section 1949-09-04

Iliuszyn Ił-12


Transport plane. Successor of Li-2.


Transport or passenger aircraft for 21-28 passengers. Nominal lifting capacity 3,500 kg. He takes 37 skydivers for boarding. 26 soldiers with full equipment can take on board. The aircraft crew consists of 4 pilots; 2 pilots, navigator and radio operator.

Il-12 is a twin-engine, low-wing, all-metal.

Three-girder wing technologically divided into three parts. Working cover reinforced with stringers. The middle wing (center wing) is permanently attached to the hull. Holds engine nacelles with engines and main landing gear. The leading edges of the sash are de-iced with hot air. An oil cooler is located under the engines. The air is heated there and directed into channels enclosed in the wing lugs, heating them and escaping out of the openings near the engine nacelles.

Classic girder-longitudinal fuselage with working covering. It consists of three parts; front with crew cabin, middle with passenger and freight cabin, rear to which the tail was attached. The fuselage cross section is circular. The transport version has a reinforced floor. A classic airplane door is located in the rear of the fuselage on the starboard side. Parachutists' landing is also carried out through this door. On the opposite side, on the port side there is a two-part larger loading door, which is opened only on the ground. Pilot's cabin and cargo compartment non-hermetic, but heated with warm air. In the rear part there is a small additional cargo compartment, which is accessible from the cargo cabin or through a small door on the left side of the fuselage.

Classic, self-supporting. Metal construction. Ballasts covered with sheet metal, but rudders covered with canvas. Horizontal formation with a strong rise of +6 degrees. Leading edges heated with hot air. This air is taken in by the grips in the back of the hull, heated by electric heaters and directed into the nose to the tail.

Three-support chassis with front wheel. Front with single wheel, retracted to the hull back. Main with double wheels, retracted forwards in the chambers placed in engine nacelles. Oil-air shock absorbers. The chassis completes a small circle, partially protruding, acting as a bumper at the end of the bottom of the hull, during take-off and landing. At standstill, the rear of the fuselage is supported by a stand that prevents the aircraft from tipping over to the tail during loading and unloading of goods.

Powered Ił-12.

Two ASz-82 FN-212 engines, 14-cylinder double-star system, gas-free, with direct fuel injection and two-stage compressor. Take-off power 2 x 1,362 kW (2 x 1,850 HP) and nominal power 2 x 1,200 kW (2 x 1,630 HP). NACA engine covers with adjustable air inlet. Exhaust pipes exhaust at the end of engine nacelles. Four-blade propellers type AW-9, diameter 4,1 m, even adjustable for flagging. The blades are de-iced with cyclically dosed spirit and flowing in the grooves on the leading edge of the blades.

Fuel tanks placed in the wings in an amount of 6 pieces, with a total capacity of 4 150 liters. Oil tanks with a capacity of 2 x 220 liters, each located in the engine nacelle.

Avionics equipment.

Onboard radio stations RSB-7 and RSB-5, ARK-5 automatic radio compass, RPKO-10M radio half-compass, AP-42A automatic remote control.


The Ił-12 D design provided for the possibility of mounting a defensive turret on the hull's back, armored and equipped with 1 k.m. SZKAS or UBT type operated by the shooter. Airplanes used in Poland did not have such a turret. However, in the windows of the transport compartment there are circle sight glasses opened from the inside and enabling fire from small, automatic or machine weapons.

Data T-T Ił-12.

Span 31.70 m, length 21.31 m, height 7.81 m, carrying surface 103 m2, curb weight 11,000 kg, total weight 17,250 kg, load weight 3,500 kg, fuel 4,150 liters, maximum speed 407 km / h, cruising speed 320-366 km / h, landing speed 128 km / h, range 3 230 km, range with full load 1 500 km, ceiling 6 500 km (crew uses oxygen masks at the time), run-up 475 m, run-up 563 m.

Figure Il-12 D. Photo of LAC
Figure Il-12 D. Photo of LAC

Written by Karol Placha Hetman