History of steam locomotives in the 19th century.
Part 03. 2022 year.
Description of the picture: The Austrian heavy steam locomotive Tr12, from the end of the 19th century, is a modernized Tr11 locomotive (kkStB170), about which we wrote at the end of this chapter.
Development of steam locomotives.
A great achievement was the development of an effective anti-skid system through the use of a sander. The sandbox was placed on top of the boiler. Thanks to this, the sand poured into it was constantly dry and did not clump due to moisture. Pipes run from the sandbox, the ends of which are above the rail just in front of the driving wheel. A damper is mounted on the tube, which is actuated by a string from the driver's cabin. Then the pneumatic valve was developed.
In order to increase the power of steam locomotives, it was necessary to enlarge the boiler, and thus the heating surface of the boiler. This way more steam can be produced. Larger boilers mean more weight, so the number of axles had to be increased in order not to exceed the permissible pressure on the rails. The greater number of drive axles means greater adhesion to the rails and greater tractive force. It was also noticed that the front rolling axles improve the course of the locomotive. In addition, the steam locomotive fits better into the arches.
But the greater number of stiff axles makes it difficult to negotiate tight curves. The wear (abrasion) of the rails increases. It can also cause a steam engine derailment. This problem was solved in various ways.
In 1836, in the USA, a front rolling carriage was used for the first time in a steam locomotive. It was biaxial, rotatable and supported on one trunnion. Later, the stroller was refined. Then came the designs of single-axle bogies. In 1857, Bissel's cart. In 1863, Adams' rotating wheel axle. In 1888, a Krauss-Helmholtz cart.
In 1900, the Austrian engineer Karl Gölsdorf successfully solved the problem of the axles of the coupled steam locomotives. Thanks to him, for the first time the successful design of the five linked axles was created. They move sideways first, third and fifth axis. In an arc, the first and fifth axes move in the same direction, and the third in the opposite direction. The total movement along the axis is up to 5 cm.
Steam locomotives in Galicia.
When the Austrians nationalized the railroads in Galicia, subsequent types of steam locomotives came exclusively from factories in Austria. The first supplier was the Wiener Neustädter Lokomotivfabrik factory, Maschinenfabrik Esslingen. Later, the locomotives were also supplied by the Sigl Wieden Währing factory.
Steam locomotive kkStB22.
The steam locomotive kkStB22 is an Austrian steam locomotive from around 1865. CLB IId and CLB IIe locomotives were delivered to Karol Ludwik's railroad in Galicia, to serve the Kraków-Vienna route. As many as 18 copies were delivered. It was a time when attention was still paid to details. The locomotive was carefully made with numerous decorative elements. The designation kkStB22 was given to the locomotive after the ownership changes in 1889. The steam locomotive had a 1'B axle arrangement, large driving wheels and large front rolling wheels. Longitudinal leaf springs. The outer stand, and the connecting rod and trusses outside the refuge. The locomotive was equipped with a semi-booth. A tall thin chimney was placed on the smoke box. The boiler was enlarged and a much larger steam collector was mounted on it. This was to prevent the "boiler exhaustion" phenomenon. The boiler already had a pressure of 10 at. The driver's booth was enlarged. The design speed of the steam locomotive was 55 km / h, which was a very good result. This steam locomotive for refilling water in the boiler used a pump which was driven by an eccentric on the second driving axle of the steam locomotive. This meant that the water could only be pumped while driving. After the railroad nationalization, the designation of the steam locomotives was changed to the type kkStB22. These locomotives were used until the Great World War.
Steam locomotive kkStB18.
The Sigl Wieden Währing factory supplied CLB IIa, IIb and IIc steam locomotives, among others, for the Karol Ludwik Galician Railway (Kraków - Lviv route) and for the Lwów - Czerniowce - Jassy route, which belonged to the LCJE railway. In 1889, after another nationalization, steam locomotives type CLB IIa, IIb and IIc received a uniform designation of the type kkStB18.
The kkStB18 steam locomotives had a 1'B axle system. The refuge was of the external type and the wheels inside the refuge. But the twin motors and the trusses were outside the refuge. The drive was transferred to the second axle with a Hall-type connecting rod. Timing control is left inside the abutment from the eccentrics located on the axis of the driving wheels. It was a Stephenson timing gear. The boiler was already bigger, it had a heating surface of 111.0 m2, and the pressure was already 8 at. The chimney was pear-shaped and rounded. The locomotive crew already had a partial booth that protected the team from weather conditions: rain, snow, wind. The booth had oval windows called glasses. At that time, there was a perception that a closed booth limited visibility and therefore reduced security.
Steam locomotive kkStB16.
But good locomotives in Austria were already produced in 1870. The Austrians were quickly catching up with England and Prussia, expanding their industry. In 1870, locomotives were produced, later designated kkStB16. The steam locomotives kkStB16, despite having a higher number, were older than kkStB1. This change of markings and numbers resulted from the multiple nationalization of railways in Austria-Hungary. In the period 1870-1871, the Sigl factory (later Wiener Neustädter Lokomotivfabrik) built thirty class IIIa passenger locomotives for the K.K. privilegierte Österreichische Nordwestbahn (ÖNWB). After them in 1873, sixteen very similar locomotives from the WLF (class IIIb) were delivered. Two more locomotives from the original ÖNWB order placed at WLF were taken over by Mährisch-Schlesische Zentralbahn. After nationalization, all these locomotives were taken over by the KkStB; in class 16, and received service numbers from 16.02 to 16.46.
The kkStB16 locomotives had a 2'B axis system and an external support frame. Later models had the vapor pressure increased from 9 at to 10 at. However, in the course of operation, the pressure was reduced to 9 at.
Eleven copies of the KkStB16 were written off during the Great World War. After the war, the rest was divided between Poland and Czechoslovakia. ČSD took over twenty locomotives, eighteen of which were later classified as series 232.0. Their service was exceptionally long. The last 65-year-old copy 232,014 (ex 16.32, WLF 99/1873) was decommissioned in March 1938. Fourteen copies were handed over to PKP. These completely outdated locomotives were of little use to the Polish State Railways and were all written down in 1927.
Steam locomotive kkStB1.
In 1877, the Austrians put into service the steam locomotive KkStB1, which had the factory designation KRB Grimming. It was produced in the period 1877 - 1883. The locomotive had a 2'B axle system and a three-axle tender. The locomotive had an internal sanctuary. It had a curb weight of 35,300 kg and a service weight of 39,000 kg. The diameter of the driving wheels was 1.72 m, and the rolling wheels 1.03 m. The boiler had a heating surface of 110 m2. The grate area was 1.80 m2. The design speed was 80 km / h. The locomotive had a half-booth with a whistle on the roof. There was a large sandbox on the boiler, which fed sand only to the first drive axle. There was a large steam collector on the boiler. The chimney in the shape of an inverted cone was equipped with a spark gap. The steam distribution is already on the engine. All locomotives had the word GRIMMING on them.
28 copies were built for the Archduke Rudolf Railway (Kronprinz Rudolf-Bahn, KRB). The producer was the Wiener Neustädter Lokomotivfabrik (WNL) factory. After the kkStB took over by the Austrian state railways, they were designated as series 1 (kkStB1). The last 5 locomotives of the kkStB1 series were produced in 1883 for the Lviv - Chernivtsi - Jassy Railway. They received numbers from 123 to 127 and Polish proper names, respectively: "Ogień", "Burza", "Bieg", "Para" and "Moc". After the Great World War, the former "Burza" (No. 1.24, WrN 2776/1883) was to be handed over to the Polish State Railways and was assigned the series number Od11, but it did not happen and was scrapped in 1922 in Linz.
Steam locomotive kkStB4, in the Polish State Railways, type Od13.
The Austrian steam locomotive of the kkStB4 series was another steam locomotive used in Galicia. The kkStB4 series steam locomotive was developed in 1885. It was produced in the period 1885 - 1897. It was a strong cargo steam locomotive. It had a large boiler with a heating area of 115 m2 and the steam pressure was 11 atm. The steam collector was large in size and equipped with two external safety valves. There was a large Rihosek spark gap on the chimney. Later spark gaps were placed in smaller chimneys. There was a sandbox mounted on the boiler. On the roof of the booth there were two water heaters, which were directed to the boiler, and this water was heated with used steam. Heating the water with the spent exhaust steam from the engines improves the efficiency of the steam engine, i.e. the heat balance of the boiler.
Major changes took place in the chassis of the kkStB4 steam locomotive. The known 2'B axle system was used, but in the front a Camper system bogie was used. Another big change was the relocation of Stephenson's stall outside the refuge. This solution improved the comfort of operating the locomotive. The smoker no longer had to go under the steam locomotive to refill the lubricating oil in the pan.
The kkStB4 series steam locomotive was suitable for hauling heavy new coaches, supported on two bogies and over 20 m long. After the Great World War, 29 units of the kkStB4 series were adopted by the Polish State Railways. In Poland, steam locomotives of the kkStB4 series received the designation Od13. They were withdrawn from service at the end of the 1920s.
T-T data of the kkStB4 series steam locomotive, in PKP type Od13:
Production in the period 1885 - 1897. 213 copies were built. 2'B axis system. Curb weight 40 500 kg. Service weight 44 500 kg. The service weight is 32 500 kg. Total length with tender 15.28 m. Driving wheels diameter 1.78 m. Roller diameter 1.00 m. Steam pressure in the boiler 11 at. The heating area of the boiler is 115 m2. The grate area is 2.06 m2. Tendra type 12C13. Water supply 12 m3. Design speed 80 km / h. One axle load on the rails 13,500 kg.
Steam locomotive kkStB170, type Tr11 in the Polish State Railways.
Another Austrian steam locomotive was the KkStB170 series steam locomotive, which was developed in 1897. The production was carried out in the period 1897 - 1921. The steam locomotive series kkStb170 was a great technical advance. The locomotive received a 1'D axle system, an internal sidewall and a new type of Walschaerts - Heusinger timing gear. The new Walschaerts - Heusinger timing gear ensures a much better filling of the cylinders and their emptying of the used steam. In addition, coupled engines have been used that have double steam expansion. The diesel cylinder was placed on the right side, it was steam supplied directly from the throttle, and from there the steam was sent to the left larger low pressure cylinder.
There are two steam collectors on the boiler of the steam engine of the kkStB170 series, which are connected by a special pipe. These were components of the Gölsdorf steam dryer. The steam locomotive was operated with wet steam (there was no efficient superheater yet), which contained water particles and the dehumidifier caught these particles. The dehumidifier reduced the amount of water in the steam, but the problem of condensation persisted, albeit to a lesser extent. The steam locomotive of the kkStB170 series had a large boiler, with a heating area of 250 m2 and a pressure of 13 at.
The steam locomotive series kkStB170, upon entering service, had the highest engine power and the most efficient boiler in the world. It was produced for 24 years (1897-1921). In Austria, 796 copies were built in five factories. After the Great World War, PKP received 145 kkStB170 locomotives, which were designated Tr11 in Poland. After the Second World War, only 72 Tr11 steam locomotives returned to the Polish State Railways.
T-T data of the kkStB170 steam locomotive, type Tr11 in the Polish State Railways.
Production in the period 1897 - 1921. 796 copies were built. 1'D axle system. Curb weight 61,000 kg. Service weight 69,000 kg. Gross service weight of 108,000 kg. Locomotive length 11.01 m. Total length with the tender 17.43 m. Height 4.57 m. Driving wheels diameter 1.26 m. Roller diameter 0.83 m. Pressure in the boiler 13 at. Heated area 250.30 m2. Grate area of 3.91 m2. Type tendra 16C11. Water supply 16 m3. Design speed 60 km / h. Axle load on the rails 14,200 kg.
Written by Karol Placha Hetman