Borne Sulinowo Airport.
Borne Sulinowo is one of the stranger cities in Europe. It is located in the West Pomeranian Voivodeship, in the Szczecinecki County. It is the seat of the Town and Rural Commune. The city is situated between lakes; Pile and Dolgie. A tourist attraction is the so-called underwater forest, which is the part of the island that collapsed into Lake Pile. There are also: Wrzosowiska Kłomińskie, abandoned village of Kłomino and other former military facilities.
The town was incorporated into the administrative structures of the Republic of Poland only in 1993, when the Russian army left Poland. Borne Sulinowo was then in the Koszaliński Province.
History of Borne Sulinowo.
The history of Borne Sulinowo is relatively short. Looking for a new site for the training ground, the Germans became interested in the vicinity of the village of Linde (Lipa). The local population was displaced. From 1933, a military garrison was built on the site of the village of Linde. In 1936, the town was completed. It received the name Groß Born. The town itself is small and its structure is inscribed in a circle with a diameter of about 1,500 m. The main buildings cover an area of about 150 hectares. The city is surrounded by forests on all sides, with little access to Lake Pile. In total, the entire area of the garrison was around 20,000 hectares (other figures indicate 18,000 hectares) and was mainly forest, meadows and wasteland. Several military facilities were built in the forests; shooting ranges, underground food warehouses, tactical yard facilities.
A Wehrmacht Artillery School was established in Borny Sulinowo. Adolf Hitler officially opened it on August 18, 1938. On the eve of the German aggression against Poland, an armored division was stationed in the garrison.
In September 1939, the German army organized a prisoner-of-war camp here, which functioned until January 1945. The first prisoners here were Polish soldiers. In February 1941, there were 3,731 French prisoners of war in the camp, and in January 1945, 5,391 Poles, including soldiers from the Warsaw Uprising.
During World War II, German units, later fighting in Africa, exercised on the training ground. The training ground was of great importance. The Błędowska Desert was the second important training ground for the German army.
On February 27, 1945, the Soviet army seized Szczecinek. It was not until March 3, 1945, that the Russians took Czaplinek. It was between February 27, 1945 and March 3, 1945 that the Russians entered Borne Sulinowo. Importantly, the German army returned the facility practically intact and unamined. Such an action was dictated by the belief that even if the fortifications of the Pomeranian Wall did not stop the Red Army, after a possible ceasefire and after signing the relevant peace agreements, the borders from September 1, 1939 will be preserved. However, this did not happen.
In 1945, the town of Borne Sulinowo was seized by the Radzicka Army. The town was not included in the Polish administration, although theoretically it was in the Polish administration as "forest areas".
The National Road No. 20 connecting Szczecinek with Czaplinek goes around Borne Sulinowo. Theoretically, you could get to the town of Borne Sulinowo from the town of Krągi or Łubowo. However, there were barriers and booths of the Soviet guards, who issued the only command - "Na croup", flush with the forest line. Along the forest line there were warning signs in Polish and Russian (different in different periods of the Polish People's Republic). It would be even more difficult to get to Borne Sulinowo from the south. There is the great Borne Sulinowo training ground (mainly for tanks and artillery), the Nadarzyce training ground, another Russian city of Kłomino and the village of Brzeźnica-Kolonia near Jastrów with the object 3002 (nuclear weapons depot, from 1970 to 1992). From the south, the roads were numbered. E.g. 1298Z, 1299Z.
Railway in Borny Sulinowo.
Railway line No. 210 is an important railway route in Poland that connects Chojnice with Runowo Pomorskie via Szczecinek, Złocieniec and Drawsko Pomorskie. Its construction began during the times of the German Empire. In 1871, the rapid development of railroads was planned. Several important rail routes have been marked out. One of them was the railway line from Berlin to Konigsberg. The current line No. 210 was part of it. The route between Chojnice and Runowo Pomorskie was built in stages in the period 1872-1877. In 1877, the railway stations in Szczecinek and Złocieniec were ready. Anticipating heavy rail traffic, the route was created as a double-track route with a normal gauge of 1435 mm. In 1935, a siding to Borne Sulinowo was opened from the Łubowo railway station. The siding was 9.6 km long and had a single track. In Poland, the Łubowo - Borne Sulinowo trail was given No. 425.
From January 1945, with the advance of the war front, special Soviet railway units forged the rails from a gauge of 1,435 mm to 1,520 mm. Already in December 1944, wide tracks were led to Brodnica, from the direction of Ostróda. Others, some railway lines, were dismantled by the Russians and taken to the CCCP. It is estimated that 1,500 km of railway tracks were transported from the territory of present-day Poland, and 3,000 km from the territory of the former GDR. Railway rails, switches, semaphores and other railway devices were taken to the CCCP. It was treated as a military trophy - a trophy. Many bridges and viaducts were blown up by the Russians to hinder the possible reconstruction of the routes. For example, such bridge ruins can be seen on the non-existent Lębork - Bytów railway route. Such action by the Russians in Masuria, Pomerania and Silesia lasted until 1948. The wide track eliminated the need to change carriages or even complete reloading of equipment and soldiers. When was the railway line No. 210 re-turned into a track with a gauge of 1435 mm? This is not known. Probably before 1950.
Currently, the railway route No. 210 between Chojnice and Runowo Pomorskie is 150 km long. After 1990, rail traffic was systematically decreasing. The trail was never electrified. More passenger connections were suspended and the number of freight trains decreased. The change took place in 2016, when it was decided to revitalize the line on the section Szczecinek - Runowo Pomorskie. The maximum speed of passenger trains has increased to 120 km / h. Currently, the railway route No. 410 is one of the most picturesque railway lines. Long and straight sections of tracks are conducive to increasing the speed of passenger trains up to 160 km / h.
The situation is different on the railway route No. 425. In 1975, passenger traffic, used mainly by Russians, was closed. In 1993, the cargo traffic was closed, after the last echelons left with Russian soldiers. In 2002, due to the lack of maintenance works, the line became impassable. In 2010, the track was demolished. The track bed became a dirt forest road.
Garrison of Borne Sulinowo.
In the surrounding forests, the Germans and then the Russians built a dozen or so important military facilities; ballistic missile launcher positions (including RSD-10 Pionier / SS-20), conventional and nuclear weapons warehouses, chemical weapons warehouses (cyanides, mustard gas / mustard gas, phosgene and others). Fuel storage facilities could contain 66,800 m3 of propellants. There are several shooting ranges here; for the personal weapons of soldiers, tanks and artillery.
However, there are no such objects as underground cities like those in the Owl Mountains. This is due to the low groundwater level and the loose substrate. Subsequent users also did not build huge defensive structures. According to the Russian military doctrine, their army is mobile. He can start changing locations at any time. Basic supplies, even food, are not important to her. This army feeds on what will rob the indigenous people. For the Russians, there is only one defense object - Moscow and the Kremlin. A symbol of the enslavement of Eastern Europe and most of Asia. Mechanized, armored and mobile missile units were stationed here mainly. In 1990, about 15,000 Russian soldiers occupied the garrison.
A sad object left by CCCP soldiers is the soldiers' cemetery, located on the road Borne Sulinowo - Krągi, near the cemetery of POWs who died during World War II. Interestingly, the CCCP cemetery is much larger than this prisoner of war. There are buried soldiers who were unlucky and died during military exercises or ordinary accidents, or as a result of quarrels between drunk village leaders. The Russians do not return the bodies of the deceased to their families. They bury their soldiers almost on the spot. Children who did not live long are also buried in the cemetery.
The Russians were based in Bornem Sulinowo until October 1992. The last transport left on October 12, 1992. In April 1993, the City was handed over to the Polish civil authorities.
As there was a concern that the area might be heavily sued, the Polish authorities commissioned the Military University of Technology and the University of Silesia to conduct research. The study did not reveal any significant exceedances of both radiation and soil and water contamination. Nevertheless, you can also find barrels with chemical weapons (e.g. mustard gas / mustard gas) here. Until today, unexploded ordnance can be dug in the area of the training ground. Therefore, when a fire breaks out in the forest, the firefighting action can only be carried out from the air. In general, fires are not extinguished until the flames approach the buildings.
On June 5, 1993, the city was officially opened. On October 2, 1993, the city received city rights, granted by the Council of Ministers of the Republic of Poland, and was demilitarized. The city has 35 streets. In 1993, the process of resettlement with new residents began. They were mainly retired miners who wanted to leave Silesia and were looking for silence and contact with nature. In two years (until 1995) 1,549 inhabitants settled in the city. In 2010, there were already 3,700 inhabitants.
The commune authorities focused on tourism, using military remains and natural values. In order to make Borne Sulinowo more attractive and make it easier for tourists to visit Borne Sulinowo, the city authorities marked out a 13,500-meter-long tourist and walking path. There are 21 objects worth seeing along the path. At each of them there is a trilingual (Polish, English, German) information board. Almost every plaque contains historical photos, thus making it possible to compare the past and present appearance of the object. Some buildings have not yet been renovated. There is a museum in the city, the owner and guide of which is Andrzej Michalak, telephone: 505 702 541 or 605 741 823.
Borne Sulinowo airport.
Borne Sulinowo airport was established when the garrison was established. Small transport planes landed here, usually carrying high German officers and mail on board. After 1945, the airport was used mainly by helicopters (Mi-1, Mi-2, Mi-4, Mi-8), carrying goods, mail and passengers. Helicopters were also used to coordinate and evaluate field exercises and transport the injured to the local hospital. Those who were not lucky were buried in the soldiers' cemetery.
In 2013, a multifunctional landing pad was put into use. The airport is typically civil, intended for General Aviation traffic.
The airport has RWY with dimensions of 235m (250m) x 15m, direction 11/29. Asphalt-concrete surface. There is also an auxiliary RWY with dimensions of 220m x 10m, with a concrete surface, and was practically a taxiway and service route for airplanes and helicopters. At the airport, you can also mark RWY with a ground, grass surface with dimensions of 350m x 120m.
The airport is owned by the Aviation Association in Bornem Sulinowo, which operates on the basis of the Law on Associations. One of the statutory goals of the organization is the reconstruction of the airport for rescue, tourist and sports purposes. In addition, the Aviation Association deals with the promotion of knowledge and air sport, mainly among young people.
Written by Karol Placha Hetman