320a Section 15.11.2012 year.
Boeing-787 Dreamliner in Poland.
The Boeing B.787 is a commercial aircraft adapted to transport approximately 300 passengers over long distances. The B.787 is the first aircraft in the world to be built primarily from composites.
The genesis of the B.787 aircraft.
The end of the 20th century brought changes in the production and sale of commercial passenger aircraft. Boeing was slowly losing its dominance to Airbus. While in the segment of aircraft with up to 200 passenger seats, the B 737 and A 320 constructions went hand in hand, in the larger machines Boeing faced more difficult times. The number of orders for the B 767 and B 747-400 aircraft decreased. Airbus planned to build the giant A 380 aircraft.
Therefore, the heads of Boeing proposed the construction of two new structures. The first was the significantly modified B 747-X. With an elongated hull and more economical to operate. The offer was received coolly by the airline, but years later it was finalized as the B.747-8 plane.
The second proposal was to be the Sonic Cruiser, the successor to the excellent, but already old B 767. The plane was to achieve a speed higher by 15% compared to its predecessor with the same fuel consumption. So it was supposed to get closer to the speed of sound. Its layout is the so-called "duck", which is very innovative for a passenger plane. Several major airlines in the US, including Continental Airlines, initially showed enthusiasm for the Sonic Cruiser idea, although they also expressed concerns about the plane's price and operating costs.
On September 11, 2001, the situation changed dramatically (the attack on the WTC). The global aviation market has been shaken. The price of crude oil has risen. As a result, airlines were more interested in efficiency than speed. Especially those in America to which the Sonic Cruiser offer was first directed. Boeing officially canceled the Sonic Cruiser program on 12/20. 2002.
However, the topic of the new plane still existed. Since many of the technologies that were intended to be used in the Sonic Cruiser were already developed, it was decided to use them, but in a more conventional aircraft layout. The start of the new program, designated B.7E7, was officially announced on January 29, 2003.
At this point, it is necessary to write about the colliding theories of transport. In Europe, there was a view that passengers should travel through transit ports, so-called hubs. So when flying from Krakow to Chicago, he should get in Krakow. Fly to Warsaw. Another plane to fly to New York and then from New York to Chicago. This theory has been called focus grups. On the other hand, the point to point view prevailed in the USA. People don't want to change trains many times. They want to reach their destination in one plane. And that's why the new plane was supposed to fit in with this theory.
The title B 7E7 stood for Boeing 7 Eight 7, which is eight. The B 7E7 program was also codenamed Y2. The letter Y came from the word Yellowstone. The Yellowstone program is a complete package of modern technologies for commercial aircraft. Among them; composites, electrical systems in place of hydraulic, more fuel-efficient turbofan engines (such as the Pratt & Whitney PW1000 G Geared, General Electric GEnx, CFM International LEAP56 and Rolls-Royce Trent 1000). The term Yellowstone refers to; Y1 - B 737, Y2 - B 7E7, Y3 - B 747. However, the first program was Y2.
In July 2003, the competition for a proper name for the aircraft was resolved. The Dreamliner title won. Other names; Global, eLiner. On January 28, 2005, the valid aircraft designation was finally given; Boeing 787 Dreamliner.
The first drawings and artistic visions depicted the B 7E7 with extravagant windows in the cockpit, its beak tilted significantly downwards, and a shark fin tail. Not all of these ideas survived the design time. According to the manufacturer's assurances, the plane was to use 20% less fuel than the B 767. The engines were to be 40% more efficient. In addition, profit from aerodynamic improvements. The aircraft was to obtain a certified ETOPS capability of 330 minutes.
Description of the photo: Above the modified B 737. Below the B 787 with futuristic crew cabin glazing and curved tail. Primaris Airlines was an American company operating from 2002 to 2008. It was the first company in the world to order 20 B 787 aircraft.
Description of the photo: Artistic vision of the B 787 with futuristic glazing of the crew cabin. Blue Panorama is an Italian airline, but ultimately did not order Dreamliner aircraft.
Description of the picture: Artistic vision of the B 787. This airline, First Choice, exists and has ordered 12 B 787-8s.
We mentioned the windows in the crew cabin. But the passenger is of little interest to this. He is interested in the windows in the passenger compartment. Who flies knows that the fuselage of a typical plane has several dozen tiny windows through which you can see little and not too much light. If you want to see something, you have to hug the glass. And the passenger next to it can already watch the newspaper, and in better planes, the monitor in front of him. As research has shown, 90% of passengers indicate that larger windows would improve the comfort of flying. So the B 787 has the largest windows of any passenger plane. They are 27 by 47 cm. They are also located so that passengers can see the horizon. It is definitely not a revolution, but an evolution is. It improves psychological comfort.
But in order for a paper plane to become a real one, there must be a future user who will invest his funds in the program. On April 26, 2004, Japanese All Nippon Airways (ANA) announced an order for 50 aircraft. 30 B 787-3 machines for 290-330 passengers in a one-class arrangement and 20 B 787-8 machines for 210-250 passengers in a two-class arrangement. Deliveries were to begin in 2008. Now the works could start in full swing. At this point, we will only mention the first version of the B 787-3, which was ordered by All Nippon Airways and Japan Airlines. See below for a description.
During the design phase, the B 787 models underwent extensive wind tunnel testing at the Boeing Wind's Transonic Tunnel, then at QinetiQ at the Farnborough UK wind tunnel, then at the NASA Ames Research Center, as well as at the Agency's French Aerodynamics Research Center. ONERA. As a result of the styling, the plane was more conservative than previous proposals. This was mainly due to the financial calculation.
Composite materials, abbreviated as composites, are, as the name suggests, compositions. That is, they consist of at least two constituent materials with significantly different physical and chemical properties. A typical example of a composite would be a brake pad shoe which consists of hard ceramic particles embedded in a soft metal matrix. Another example are shower trays and bathtubs that are made of fiberglass. Carbon fibers have been used in aviation since the late 1940s. In the 1980s, the Piaggio P.180 Avanti composite plane, which was very popular to date, was developed - a business plane manufactured by Piaggio Aero. Composites have also been used for many years among large commercial aircraft. However, these were usually elements that did not carry significant loads.
That is why building the B 787 (airframe) solely out of composites has become such a revolutionary change.
The main part of the fuselage (without the nose and tail) was made of one large composite element. Instead of the classic section of frames, stringers and sheathing sheets, made of aluminum alloys and about 50,000 different types of rivets.
Composites are at the heart of the B 787 airframe. Each airframe contains approximately 35,000 kg of primary composite. Shorter versions 32,000 kg. The basis of the composite is plastic-reinforced carbon fiber (CFRP). The composite contains approximately 65.7% carbon fiber. Carbon fiber composites have higher strength to weight than traditional materials. The saving in weight of the structure is the main advantage for which the B 787 was developed.
In line with many years of aviation tradition, Boeing allows the buyer to choose one of two dedicated engines. Boeing dedicated the General Electric GEnx and Rolls-Royce Trent 1000 engines for the B 787. However, it must be mentioned that initially Boeing wanted to power the B 787 only with General Electric engines. This was due to pressure from the US government to protect its own market. This way of operating for the masonic-liberal rule of Prime Minister Donald Tusk in the Republic of Poland was unknown.
The engines were built according to a new philosophy. Hot air de-icing has been abandoned in favor of electric de-icing, which can be better controlled. As a result, the engines do not have such a typical solution as Bleed Air, i.e. taking air from the compressor to the installation. Interestingly, for the first time in this type of aircraft, one or the other engine can be installed without any problems. Connectors and hangers have been unified. Much attention has been paid to the air holds and its discharge. The air grip has been redesigned many times to reduce noise as much as possible, while maintaining the best air intake conditions. The grips use largely noise-absorbing materials. The most eye-catching sight is the toothed chevron (chevron). It performs silencing functions. Thanks to these changes, the noise of the motors does not exceed 85 dB at a distance of about 100 m from the machine.
As for the motors themselves, the first was General Electric GEnx. This engine is based on the engine used in the B 777 under the designation GE90. From this engine, the composite fan blades and its housing were adopted unchanged.
At the end of 2004, Boeing won orders for 237 machines. At that time, the unit price was estimated at $ 120 million. In 2007, the valuable amounted to; B 787-3 146-151.5 million, B 787-8 $ 157-167 million, B 787-9 $ 189-200 million.
Suppliers and partners.
It is not true that if the main Boeing factory is Everett, the production of the B 787 will certainly start there. Competition was fierce, and other countries wanted to have some of the pie for themselves. On 12/16/2003, Boeing announced that final assembly of the B 787 would take place in Everett, Washington, requiring just 800-1,200 workers. This solution had advantages and disadvantages. The advantage was faster final assembly (3-4 days), requiring less logistics. The downside is the need for greater control of suppliers who will send larger items. And the necessity to have a larger plane for transporting B 787 elements. In order to organize fast transport of components, the Boeing concern rebuilt four B 747-200 planes into B 747 Dreamlifters. These planes take on board the entire wings and the entire fuselage.
Few people know that in December 2004, a group of representatives of Boeing, Alena and SAAB came to Poland, looking for partners to build assembly devices needed for the production of B 7E7. Companies in Bydgoszcz, Świdnik, Rzeszów and Mielec were taken into account. Unfortunately, it is not known what the effects were. In any case, it was a good period of cooperation between Polish and American companies, which cannot be said about the later years (2007-2012). Let us recall that in the 90s of the 20th century, the doors to the B 757 were manufactured in Mielec.
A bit ahead of the chronology, we note that representatives of Boeing have visited Poland twice more: in 2008 and in August 2011. (2-5 August 2011). The Americans were looking for a site to build a factory for about $ 40 million (?) That would build an aircraft components plant with no more than 400 employees. Due to the silence that prevailed in the media, it must be assumed that no agreements were reached.
Not only the plane itself was supposed to be technically and technologically advanced. Boeing took an innovative approach to the production of the new aircraft. Huge parts of the plane, almost completely equipped, are built in different parts of the world, and the final assembly in Everett is to consist of putting everything together in just 3-4 days.
The process of selecting subcontractors was tedious. This was due to the extremely large share of subcontractors in the production process. Keep in mind that it was not the new technologies that caused the program delays, but the scattering of production around the world.
According to the 2007 data, the division of labor was as follows: Vought was responsible for the aft fuselage produced in Charleston, Italian Alenia - middle fuselage and horizontal fins in Grottagline, Japanese Mistsubishi-Fuji-Kawasaki - wings, Kawasaki and Spirit Aero Systems - front part hull, Hamilton Sundstrand - most of the electrical installations.
According to data from 2009, production has undergone some changes. The wings were produced by a company from Japan, Mitsubishi Heavy Industries. Production of the center wing began in Italy, Alenia Aeronautica and in South Korea, Korea Aerospace Industries. The following companies are involved in the production of the hull: Global Aeronautica, Italy, Boeing, North Charleston, USA, Kawasaki Heavy Industries, Japan, Spirit Aero Systems, Wichita, USA, Korean Air, South Korea.
Passenger door (Latecoere, France). Cargo door, entrance door and emergency exit door for the crew (SAAB AB, Sweden). Software (HCL Enterprise, India). Beams for ceilings (TAL Manufacturing Solutions Limited, India). Electrical installation (Labinal, France). Small composite airframe elements (Korean Air, South Korea). Chassis (Messier-Dowty, UK and France). Power distribution and management systems, as well as ventilation and air conditioning (Hamilton Sundstrand, Connecticut, USA).
The coordination of the project was commissioned to the Israeli plants of IAI, but it was beyond their capabilities. Documents circulated between IAI - Alenia - Charleston - Seattle, contributing to the delays. Boeing appears to have overestimated the organizational and creative abilities of some vendors. For example, in Grottagline, Italy, where one of the new factories had been built, grew an olive grove that was centuries old. The trees had to be transplanted elsewhere, which caused a delay of several weeks. Not to mention that almost all manuals and documentation had to be translated from English into the local languages. As a result, Boeing had to send representatives to each of its suppliers to oversee production and keep headquarters updated.
Japan's share of B 787 production has become very large, reaching 35% of the total. Japanese companies have taken the lead in the program. Nay; the Japanese government financially supported its contractors and subcontractors. It is a pity that the Polish government (2007-2012) does not support Polish companies. On April 26, 2006, Japanese manufacturer Toray Industries and Boeing announced a new manufacturing contract for carbon fiber components worth $ 6 billion.
Construction of the first aircraft.
During the construction of the first 6 machines, the airframe was found to weigh more than expected by 5,000 pounds (2,300 kg). Upon further analysis, the proposed version of the B 787-9 would be approximately 14,000 pounds (6,400 kg) heavier. That's why Boeing redesigned some components and used more titanium. It was one of the problems that was successfully solved.
Originally, Boeing planned a rollout for the aircraft on 7/8/2007, and the first flight on 7/8/2007. These dates match the number 787. Especially the former, due to the American way of indicating the date; month, day, year.
The rollout took place on 8.07.2007. However, it was only a marketing maneuver, not a proper rollout. The plane did not have many components mounted, and those that were inside were temporarily attached without target supports and fasteners. The company saved face, but the plane returned to the hall. It was disassembled and reassembled using the correct bolts and rivets.
In the fall of 2007, Mike Bair was dismissed from his position as head of the B 787 program. His dismissal was probably not because he was not coping, but because of his statements; "Boeing will not use some of them in the future," making it clear that suppliers were the main cause of the delays. Pat Shanahan was succeeded.
On September 5, 2007, Boeing announced a three-month delay and on October 10, 2007, a three-month delay and a further three-month delay on January 16, 2008. The main reasons were problems with sub-suppliers, as well as logistics and software development problems. The issue of delays has fed the media. They did not acknowledge that such a modern aircraft and subcontractors from as many as three continents, huge logistics, could cause delays. The topic only died down after the first flight.
The plane underwent various tests. Including destructive testing. Concerns were expressed that the plane would burn down as a result of the crash and passengers would suffocate with toxic gases. The FAA, which certified the aircraft, requested additional testing due to the scale of the composite materials. Tests showed that the burning composite hull showed no major toxicity compared to conventional metal hulls.
On September 27, 2008, the plane underwent a pressure test. Within two hours, the hull was successfully tested to a pressure of 14.9 MPa (102.7 kPa), which is 150% of the required pressure.
On May 3, 2009, the first flight prototype of the B 787 began a series of airport tests; taxiing, take-offs, braking.
On May 4, 2009, press reports indicated a 10-15% lower coverage. Up to 6,900 NMI (12,800 km), instead of the originally promised 7,700 NMI - 8,200 NMI (14,800 km-15,700 km). Boeing executives confirmed these reports, pointing out that the appropriate thinning has already taken place and the next machines on the production line will reach the promised distance. The reduced distance concerned 21 machines under construction. The aftermath of this information was a new schedule of aircraft deliveries to customers.
On August 27, 2009, an updated schedule was announced for the B 787 program. The first flight was scheduled for late 2009 and aircraft deliveries from late 2010. This schedule was due to the fact that the first three planes were not suitable for handover to customers, only for further testing and flight tests.
On October 28, 2009, it was announced that a second final assembly line would be commissioned in Charleston, South Carolina.
On March 28, 2010, the entire cycle of tests of the wings was completed, which withstood the required conditions in 150%. The wings were flexed approximately 25 feet (7.6 m) up. Boeing announced that the test was excellent.
The first flights of the B.787.
On December 15, 2009, the B 787 made its first flight. It was version B 787-8 no. ZA001, registration N787BA. Take-off weight 176,900 kg. The plane took off from Snohomish County Airport in Everett, Washington at 10:27 am and landed at Boeing Paine Field in King County, Washington at 13:35. The original flight was supposed to take 4-5 hours, but it was shortened due to bad weather. It was piloted by an experienced crew: Captain Mike Carriker and Captain Randy Nerville. The flight was escorted by the T-33 Shooting Star and T-38 Talon aircraft. It ran over the eastern part of the Strait of Juan de Fuca. Initially, the flight altitude was maintained at 762 m, and then it was increased to 4 572 m. Cruising speed was approximately 333 km / h. All flight parameters were transmitted to the monitoring center at the airport on an ongoing basis.
The flight tests of the prototypes lasted 8.5 months and 6 machines were used. Let us recall that similar tests of the B 777 took 11 months and 10 examples were used.
6 machines were used in the test flight program; ZA001 - ZA006. Four of them drove Rolls-Royce Trent 1000 engines and two GE engines from GEnx-1B64 engines. The B 787 ZA002 aircraft in the colors of All Nippon Airways was included in the program.
On April 23, 2010, B 787, No. ZA003, began climate tests at the McKinley Climatic Laboratory at Eglin Air Force Base, Florida. There is a climate hangar that can simulate conditions ranging from +115 to -45 degrees C. The plane was tested at +46 degrees C and -43 degrees C, and then the plane took off.
B 787 # ZA005, the first with General Electric GEnx engines, began ground testing of the engine in May 2010. He made his first flight on June 16, 2010. One of the specimens also underwent lightning strike tests. As a result, the aircraft received additional conductive elements to mitigate the effect of lightning strike and to make the machine meet the standards contained in the FAA directives.
The B 787 made its European debut at the Farnborough Airshow in Great Britain on 07/18/2010.
Unexpected problems occurred with the Trent 1000 engines. Rolls-Royce was forced to conduct additional trials, and Boeing added two more to the trials. A total of 8 machines.
On November 9, 2010, the B 787 aircraft number ZA002 was on a test flight. During this flight, smoke appeared in the cabin. The machine had an emergency landing. Nothing happened to anyone. A Boeing spokesman said, "The plane landed safely and the crew evacuated after landing at Laredo International Airport, Texas." It was quickly determined that the cause was a foreign element near the wiring loom. Flights were resumed on December 23, 2010.
On July 4, 2011, All Nippon Airways began a week of flight operations using the B 787 test run in Japan. The aircraft made 1,707 flights during 4,828 hours. He visited 14 countries in Asia, Europe, North America and South America.
On August 26, 2011, the Rolls-Royce engines powering the B 787-8 were certified by the FAA and the European Aviation Safety Agency at a ceremony in Everett.
On 6-8.12.2011, the sixth test plane B 787-8 built No. ZA 006 set two new world records for this class of machines in terms of the distance of uninterrupted flight and its speed. The plane was powered by General Electric GEnx engines. There were 13 people on board (6 crew members, an observer from the National Aeronautic Association and 6 employees of Boeing plants). The plane took off on December 6, 2011, at 11:02 am from Boeing Airport in Seattle. It flew 10,710 nautical miles (19,835 km) non-stop to Shahjalal in Dhaka, Bangladesh, setting a new world distance record for aircraft weighing between 440,000 kg (200,000 kg) and 550,000 lb (250,000 kg). This flight broke the previous record of 9,127 nautical miles (16,903 km) set in 2002 by the Airbus A 330. After a two-hour stop and refueling, the plane departed for its return to Seattle, still heading east. This time it covered a distance of 9,734 nautical miles (18,027 km) landing again at the Boeing Field factory airport in Seattle on December 8, 2011, at 5:29 a.m., setting the world record for air laps of 42 hours, 27 minutes.
In late 2011, the B 787 began a world tour to promote the plane.
On September 26, 2011 (Monday), Boeing and ANA (Japan) airlines signed the documents finalizing the delivery of the first B 787-8 Dreamliner. The main celebrations took place in Everett. Another B 787 no. ZA002, painted in the colors of the ANA line, was on display.
The plane to Japan departed on November 27, 2011, at 06:35 (15:35 Polish time). It was important because the departure could be tracked via the Internet. The plane landed at Tokyo Haneda Airport.
The first commercial flight in the aircraft intended for the ANA airline took place on October 26, 2011. It was a flight from Tokyo, Narita Airport to Hong Kong and back. The tickets were sold online by auction. Minimum price 2,000 Japanese yen. First prize was awarded for 35,000 Japanese yen.
The first information obtained from the carrier ANA turned out to be very good. The aircraft en route uses less fuel than the 20% promised by Boeing compared to the B 767. On the Tokyo-Frankfurt route, fuel savings were 21%. The opinions of passengers were also flattering. Nine out of ten passengers said the trip had exceeded their expectations, and a quarter said they would fly the B 787 again avoiding other aircraft. The air quality and pressure in the cabins met or exceeded expectations of nine out of ten people, and 92% said the atmosphere in the cab was as good or better than expected. ANA surveyed 800 passengers who flew 787 on the Tokyo - Frankfurt route.
The first B 787 to be assembled at the South Carolina plant was built on 04/27/2012.
Initially, there were few orders for airplanes. In 2005, only 56 with an option for another 70 machines. However, by mid-2007, things were getting much better. Boeing collected 677 orders, a kind of record at the time that the plane has a rollout ceremony. At the end of 2011, there were already 873 orders.
In the first months of operation, the B 787 did not cause any major problems. The problem was with the landing gear extension. On November 8, 2011, ANA reported that the pilots were forced to extend the landing gear using the emergency manual system after the indicator light indicated that the wheels had not turned out properly. A similar problem appeared in other machines and only required proper adjustment. In one of the planes belonging to Ethiopia, the engine had to be replaced.
Versions of B.787.
By 2013, the following versions had been developed:
B 787-3 (300) - it was the first version, but it was not fully developed and was not included in the equipment of any airline. The reason was the range of only 6,500 km. The plane was to carry 290 passengers in two classes and maximally cramped seats. The calculated range turned out to be even smaller; 2,500 to 3,050 nautical miles (4,650 to 5,650 km). In addition, the plane was to have a 25-foot (7.6 m) shorter span (about 52 m) to accommodate old-style hangars, such as are still used in Japan. The wingtips would also be different. With typical winglets. Another problem was the limitation of the maximum take-off weight to 364,000 pounds (165,100 kg), which translated into a reduction in baggage allowance per passenger.
Boeing believed that an aircraft with a range of 4,500-6,500 km would be eagerly ordered by shipping companies to replace the B 757-300 and B 767-200. It has even accepted an order from two Japanese carriers for 43 machines. As it was decided a little earlier that the basic model will be the B 787-8, which, in addition, was delayed compared to the schedule, work on the B 787-3 was suspended. It happened in April 2008. At the beginning of 2010, all B 787-3 machines ordered so far, were changed by the ordering parties to the B 787-8 versions. As Boeing was developing the B-787-3 specifically for Japan, the program was completely canceled on 12/13/2010.
B 787-8 - the most popular basic version in the first years of production. Typically designed for 210-250 passengers. The B 787-8 version became the basic version. It is 186 feet (57 m) long and has a wingspan of 197 feet (60 m). The range is 7,650 to 8,200 nautical miles (14,200 to 15,200 km) depending on configuration.
B 787-9 - extended version, designed for 250-290 passengers in three classes. The B 787-9 is the first extended variant. Range 8,000 to 8,500 nautical miles (14,800 to 15,750 km). The wings remained almost unchanged (only collecting more fuel). Initially, the B-787-9 was supposed to take as much fuel as the B 787-8. But after consultation with future users, additional front tanks were added in the wings. Air New Zealand will be the first customer. Deliveries will start at the beginning of 2014.
B 787-10 - the longest version, designed for 290-310 passengers. Until the end of 2012, there was no significant information about the progress of this version. Boeing has determined that there will be a demand for an enlarged version. The proposed version is to compete with the planned A 350-900 and replace the B 777-200 ER. As early as March 2006, B 787 program director Mike Bair said, "It's not a question of whether, but when we're going to do it ..."
To be continued.
Written by Karol Placha Hetman