Aviata Farman-Aviata 1910.

Kraków 2017-09-27

History

00110a Section 1910 year.

AVIATA Farman Aviata.

Farman III. Photo of Wikipedia 2014 year.
Farman III. Photo of Wikipedia 2014 year.

The Farman company, although it did not build many aircraft structures, became very important in the development of aviation. Henri Farman started building his first plane in 1905 and he flown it with success. The plane was later designated Farman I. In 1907, Henri Farman collaborated with the brothers Gabriel and Charles Voisin, who began to build their first structure in 1906. However, their plane was not as good as Henri Farman's. The Farman I aircraft began to be called Voisin-Farman I. The aircraft was constantly improved and subsequent copies were created. Among other things, it was covered with a rubberized fabric by Continentan AG from Hanover. They also started to develop something like a cockpit, by installing side covers. Various engines were used.

In August 1908, Henri Farman was an observer of the Wilbur Wright air show at Le Mans, France. As a result, Henri Farman introduced ailerons in its design. The new plane was designated Farman I-bis. The Voisin brothers built another plane and named it Vosion-Farman II. They included all the novelties in design. The plane was later sold by J.T.C. Moore-Brabazon, who took the plane to England and began its production. This fact caused Henri Farman, at the beginning of 1909, to stop working with the Vosion brothers and develop the Farman III aircraft, which he began to produce in series.

The Farman III is a push-pull biplane with an equal wingspan, a single elevator at the front and double vertical control surfaces on the tail on the spars. Farman in his project gave up the covered gondola of the pilot. Lateral control was provided by ailerons on the upper and lower wings. The airframe was made of wood, mainly ash, and its elements were connected with aluminum fittings. The wings and tail consisted of ribs and two spars tucked into the shields and covered with a single layer of cloth.

Initially, the drive was a four-cylinder, water-cooled inline Vivinus engine with 50 hp (37 kW). Farman later replaced the drive with a new and more reliable 50 HP (37 kW) Gnome Omega rotary motor.

From the spring of 1909, Henri Farman sold his planes. Their owners were beginning to achieve great success in the first aviation competition. That is why Farman started to offer racing versions, with shorter wings or long-distance versions with a 2.50 m wider upper lobe and a lift area of ​​about 70 square meters. They had a larger fuel tank (120 liters), a larger oil tank (36 kg). Such a plane could stay in the air for up to 12 hours. Variants with a cockpit for the pilot were created. Two-seat versions. There were versions of Farman III where the ailerons were only on the upper lobe.

As early as August 1909, Farman III planes covered distances of over 200 km and stayed in the air for four hours.

Farman achieved commercial success and sold many copies of this aircraft. Farman III was also built in Germany by Aviatik as Farman-Aviatik and by Albatros Flugzeugwerke in Johannistalu as Albatros F-2. Farman III had a huge impact on the design of European aircraft. It was almost completely copied, which meant that these planes were referred to as the "Farman type". Initially, Henri Farman considered bringing lawsuits, but this did not happen.

The Farman III and Farman IV planes were also manufactured in Warsaw at Pole Mokotowskie at Puławska Street, by the first Polish factory of AVIATA aircraft, established on May 21, 1910. These planes were built under the license of the German company Aviatik (license with a license). About 8-10 of them were built within 8 months. They were also called Farman-Awiata.

Compared to the models, the Aviata planes received longer skids, which better protect against drift. There were also other minor changes. Among other things, other types of wood were used and wood hollowing was used in the interior to make the elements lighter. Wood gluing and other fittings are used more widely.

Farman planes were equipped with various types of engines. However, the rotary type engines turned out to be the best. They were characterized by a high power-to-weight ratio. They did not overheat. They were relatively easy to build and renovate. But they also had disadvantages. Lubrication was with a loss of oil and the engine had high gyro torque. It was not possible to build a good rotary engine with more than 200hp. These facts put an end to this type of construction.

Most of the planes built in Pole Mokotowskie were used to learn how to pilot new aviators at the school, initially headed by Henryk Segno.

Henri Farman's two other brothers; Maurice and Dick were involved in the production of cars from 1902. From 1908, Maurice Farman supported his brother Henri in the production of aircraft. In 1913, the third brother, Dick Farman, joined the company and the company was renamed Farman Frères. Farman returned to car production after the Great War, when the war orders ended. In 1934, Farman merged with the equally well-known company Blériot Aéronautique and ANF Les Mureaux into UCA, which in 1936 became the Société Nationale de Constructions Aéronautiques du Sud-Ouest with state capital.

With the start of the Great World War, the company Farman Frères, which then changed its name to Avions Farman (Farman Aviation Works, Farmana Aviation Works), began to receive orders for military aircraft.

Construction

The Farman-Aviata plane is a two-seater structure, one of the successful pioneering designs. The plane was developed by Henri Farman.

Rectangular, double-girder panels, covered with canvas, stiffened with posts and wire ropes. The ailerons are only placed on the upper lobe.

The fuselage is a wooden truss made of hollow wood, connected with fittings and stiffened with wire lashings. Crew seats uncovered. Canvas crew seats.

The horizontal tail is placed at the front. Double vertical tail located at the rear.

The main front undercarriage is equipped with two wheels and long skids.

Power unit equipped with an internal combustion engine that moved a two-bladed push propeller. The usual Gnôme radial rotary engine with an output of 36.7 kW (50 HP) was used.

T-T Farman-Aviata data:

Span 10.5 m. Length 12.5 m. Height 3.0 m. Bearing area 41.0 m 2. Own weight 400 kg. Payload 180 kg. Gross weight is 580 kg. Max speed 60 km / h. Rate of climb 1.2 m / s. Operating ceiling 1 500 m. Maximum range 400 km.

Farman Aviata in Poland.

In Warsaw, 8-10 Farman-Aviata planes were built at the Aviata factory in Pole Mokotowskie.

Written by Karol Placha Hetman